Features of Windows7:
1. Only 64 bit versions of windows 7 can handle over 4GB of memory (RAM).
2. The following table specifies the limits on physical memory for Windows 7.
|Version||Limit on x86||Limit on x64|
|Windows 7 Ultimate||4 GB||192 GB|
|Windows 7 Enterprise||4 GB||192 GB|
|Windows 7 Professional||4 GB||192 GB|
|Windows 7 Home Premium||4 GB||16 GB|
|Windows 7 Home Basic||4 GB||8 GB|
|Windows 7 Starter||2 GB||2 GB|
3. Both the 32 bit and 64 bit versions of Windows 7 require minimum 1 GHz
If you want to run Windows 7 on your PC, given below are the hardware requirements:
1. 1 GHz or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor
2. 1 GB RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit)
3. 16 GB available hard disk space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit)
4. DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or higher driver
4.Automatic Restart on Major Error (Windows 7): The automatic restart option in Windows 7 is enabled by default. As a result, if there is any major error, the Operating System will automatically restart.
5. To Know the Port on which the Printer is connected: In a Windows 7 computer, go to Control Panel\Hardware and Sound\Devices and Printers and right click on appropriate printer. Click on "Printer Properties" to open the properties window of the chosen printer. Click on Ports tab to view the port on which a printer is connected. A typical screen-shot is shown below:
Windows 7 Start-Up Options:
Windows 7 advanced startup options can be accessed by pressing F8 key when prompted during the beginning of the Windows 7 boot process. The following options will be made available as shown in the below fig.
1. Repair Your Computer: Shows a list of system recovery tools you can use to repair startup problems, run diagnostics, or restore your system. This option is available only if the tools are installed on your computer's hard disk. If you have a Windows installation disc, the system recovery tools are located on that disc.
2. Safe Mode: Starts Windows with a minimal set of drivers and services.
3. Safe Mode with Networking: Starts Windows in safe mode and includes the network drivers and services needed to access the Internet or other computers on your network.
4. Safe Mode with Command Prompt: Starts Windows in safe mode with a command prompt window instead of the usual Windows interface. This option is intended for IT professionals and administrators.
5. Enable Boot Logging: Creates a file, ntbtlog.txt, that lists all the drivers that are installed during startup and that might be useful for advanced troubleshooting.
6. Enable low-resolution video (640x480): Starts Windows using your current video driver and using low resolution and refresh rate settings. You can use this mode to reset your display settings.
7. Good Configuration (advanced): Starts Windows with the last registry and driver configuration that worked successfully.
8. Directory Services Restore Mode: Starts Windows domain controller running Active Directory so that the directory service can be restored. This option is intended for IT professionals and administrators.
9. Debugging Mode: Starts Windows in an advanced troubleshooting mode intended for IT professionals and system administrators.
10. Disable automatic restart on system failure: Prevents Windows from automatically restarting if an error causes Windows to fail. Choose this option only if Windows is stuck in a loop where Windows fails, attempts to restart, and fails again repeatedly.
11. Disable Driver Signature Enforcement: Allows drivers containing improper signatures to be installed.
12. Start Windows Normally: Starts Windows in its normal mode.
Application dock: The application dock is available in Windows 7. The application dock is an enhanced version of the taskbar. With this, you can hover over applications that are running in the taskbar and view their current status (for example, if you are downloading something). You can also click and drag applications to and from the dock and close apps if you wish. Docking applications is fairly standard practice nowadays, and several other operating system manufacturers have similar functionality.
Note the following important points regarding various versions of Windows Operating Systems:
1. In Windows 7, a user may hide any displayed Update by right clicking on it and selecting "hide" option.
2. In Windows 7, Updates are commonly known as "Important", "Required", and "Optional". Important updates are those that relate to security and stability of the Operating System. Required updates are those that relate to added features, etc. Optional updates are the ones that pertain to device drivers, language packs, etc.
3. In Windows 7, a user may opt to manually update any Windows Updates by selecting appropriate options in the Updates applet.
4. Windows 10 periodically checks for updates. If you want to check manually, select the Start button , then select Settings > Update and security > Windows Update > Check for updates. If Windows Update says that your PC is up to date, then you have all the updates that are currently available for your PC
5. All updates in Windows 10 are automatically downloaded and installed. You cannot selectively update here or disable Windows 10 update. However, there is a way to prevent Windows 10 OS to notify and ask for downloading the updates. If the data connection is marked as "metered" then Windows 10 will not download and install the updates automatically. It will only notify when the updates are available.
6. You need to migrate (do fresh installation) from XP to Windows 7, also you cannot upgrade from 32 bit to 64 bit.
7. You can enable or disable the CTRL+ALT+DELETE sequence for logging on in Windows 7, and 8/8.1/10
8. You can require users to press CTRL+ALT+DELETE before logging on to a Windows 7-based computer, or you can eliminate this requirement for a faster logon process. Note that you must be logged on with Administrator rights to enable or disable CTRL+ALT+DELETE login.
9. Disabling the CTRL+ALT+DELETE sequence creates a "security hole." The CTRL+ALT+DELETE sequence can be read only by Windows, ensuring that the information in the ensuing logon dialog box can be read only by Windows. This can prevent rogue programs from gaining access to the computer. Microsoft recommends that you enable CTRL+ALT+DELETE for login.
10. Set up the drive in the BIOS is incorrect because today's computer's BIOS should see the drive automatically with no configuration needed. In special cases a hard disk might require special drivers.
11. If your Microsoft Windows 7- based computer does not start correctly or if it does not start at all, you can use the Windows Recovery Options to help you recover your system software.
12. Drivers developed for 32-bit versions of Windows 7 are not compatible with 64-bit versions of Windows 7, and vice a versa.
13. Windows 7 supports FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS file systems.
14. Windows 7 supports Media Center. Though Windows 7 Home Premium also supports it , it is advisable to go for Windows 7 Professional for company use.
15. Windows 7 Operating Systems use Service Packs. However, Microsoft had discontinued with the Service Packs from Windows 8 onwards. So, Windows 8, Window 8.1, and Windows 10 use only UPDATES to implement changes to the Operating Systems. For a big update to Windows 8, Microsoft released Windows 8.1. They have added a revision number instead of a Service Pack. The UPDATES are continual in nature, and usually referred to as Important, Recommended, and Optional.
16. In Windows 7, you can start the Windows Update applet by going to Control Panel > Windows Update.
Windows 7 feature a user interface termed as Aero by Microsoft. Aero interface is characterized by the following features:
1.Glass-like translucent design.
2.Dynamic windows: When you minimize a window, it animates to its place on the taskbar, so it's easier to find when you need it.
3.High dots-per-inch (dpi) support: Windows Aero supports high-resolution monitors, so you can get a laptop or flat-screen monitor that's smaller in size but shows visually richer, displaying high-resolution, easy-to-read images.
4.Live taskbar thumbnails: In Windows Aero, live taskbar thumbnail images display the actual contents of both windows that are currently open and those that are minimized in the taskbar.
5.When you rest your mouse pointer on a tile on the taskbar, you'll see the "live" contents of that window without having to bring it to the foreground.
6.Other features include Windows Flip 3D, and smooth scrolling desktop.
7.The GUI used in Windows 7 is named as Aero.
8.Advanced Boot Options is the menu that can be accessed by pressing F8, which is available in windows 7. It is also referred to as ABOM
BitLocker is available in the Enterprise and Ultimate editions of Windows 7. It is also available in the Pro and Enterprise editions of Windows 8 and windows 10. BitLocker drives can be encrypted with 128 bit or 256 bit encryption. BitLocker protects your hard drive from offline attack. This is the type of attack where a malicious user will take the hard drive from your mobile machine and connect it to another machine so they can harvest your data. BitLocker also protects your data if a malicious user boots from an alternate Operating System. With either attack method, BitLocker encrypts the hard drive so that when someone has physical access to the drive, the drive is unreadable.
BitLocker Drive Encryption: It is a full disk encryption feature included with the Ultimate and Enterprise editions of Microsoft's Windows 7 desktop operating systems.
In order for BitLocker to operate, the hard disk requires at least two NTFS-formatted volumes one for the operating system (usually C:) and another with a minimum size of 100MB from which the operating system boots. BitLocker requires the boot volume to remain unencrypted, so the boot should not be used to store confidential information.
Only the Ultimate version of Windows 7 comes with Bitlocker and BitLocker To Go. Improved for Windows 7 and available in the Ultimate edition, BitLocker helps to keep everything from documents to passwords safer by encrypting the entire drive that Windows and your data reside on. Once BitLocker is turned on, any file you save on that drive is encrypted automatically.
Trusted Platform Module(TPM): TPM is a microchip that is built into a computer. It is used to store cryptographic information, such as encryption keys. Information stored on the TPM can be more secure from external software attacks and physical theft.
BitLocker uses the TPM to help protect the Windows operating system and user data and helps to ensure that a computer is not tampered with, even if it is left unattended, lost, or stolen.
How to use BitLocker Drive Encryption in windows 10
Windows 10, similar to previous versions, includes BitLocker Drive Encryption, a feature that allows you to use encryption on your PC's hard drive and on removable drives to prevent prying eyes from snooping into your sensitive data.
BitLocker Drive Encryption is available only on Windows 10 Pro and Windows 10 Enterprise.
For best results your computer must be equipped with a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) chip. This is a special microchip that enables your device to support advanced security features.
You can use BitLocker without a TPM chip by using software-based encryption, but it requires some extra steps for additional authentication.
Your computer's BIOS must support TPM or USB devices during startup. If this isn't the case, you'll need to check your PC manufacturer's support website to get the latest firmware update for your BIOS before trying to set up BitLocker.
Your PC's hard drive must contain two partitions: a system partition, which contains the necessary files to start Windows, and the partition with the operating system. If your computer doesn't meet the requirements, BitLocker will create them for you.
Additionally, the hard drive partitions must be formatted with the NTFS file system.
The process to encrypt an entire hard drive isn't difficult, but it's time-consuming. Depending the amount of data and size of the drive, it can take a very long time.
Make sure to keep your computer connected to an uninterrupted power supply throughout the entire process.
In addition, please note the following:
DOS, and Windows 7/8/8.1/10 operating systems share the following criteria:
1. Each can have only one primary partition per hard disk.
2. The primary partition is automatically assigned a drive letter.
3. Each hard disk can have only one Extended partition
4. You can create one or more logical drives in the Extended partition.
5. When you create a logical drive in Windows 7, drive letter is automatically assigned. However, you can change the drive letter later.
Windows Firewall: Firewall is one of the most important security software on your Windows 7/8/8.1/10 computer. Windows 7/8/8.1/10 include firewall to protect the computer against Malware, Malicious software and unwanted programs from internet and intranet. Firewall monitors both the incoming and outgoing connections. Microsoft Windows 7/8/8.1/10 comes pre-installed with a software firewall utility.
Enabling the Windows 7/8/8.1/10 firewall:
Control panel -> System and security -> Windows Firewall -> Turn Windows Firewall on or off
Windows lets you set each network you connect to as either a “Private” or “Public” network. When you connect to a network the first time, Windows 10 asks if you want your computer to be discoverable or not by other computers.
You can customize how Windows treats Private and Public networks, but here’s how it works by default.
On Private networks, Windows enables network discovery features. Other devices can see your Windows computer on the network, allowing for easy file sharing and other networked features. Windows will also use the Homegroup feature to share files and media between your PCs.
On Public networks like those in coffee shops you don’t want your computer to be seen by others, though, or share your files with them. So Windows turns off these discovery features. it won’t appear to other devices on the network and won’t try to discover them. Even if you’ve set up a Homegroup on your PC, it won’t be enabled on a public network. By default it will notify the unauthorized incoming connection to the computer.
It is possible to configure programs that are allowed/dis-allowed. A sample screen-shot of allowed/disallowed programs is shown below:
Features of Windows 10
32 bit vs. 64 bit: Windows 10 64-bit supports up to 2 TB of RAM, while Windows 10 32-bit can utilize up to 3.2 GB. The memory address space for 64-bit Windows is much larger, which means, you need twice as much memory than 32-bit Windows to accomplish some of the same tasks.
1. Only 64 bit versions of windows 10 can handle over 4GB of RAM The following table specifies the limits on physical memory for Windows 10.
|Version||Limit on x86||Limit on x64|
|Windows 10 Enterprise||4 GB||2 TB|
|Windows 10 Education||4 GB||2 TB|
|Windows 10 Pro||4 GB||2 TB|
|Windows 10 Home||4 GB||128 GB|
2. Both 32 bit and 64 bit versions of Windows 10 require minimum 1 Ghz
If you want to run Windows 10 on your PC, given below are the hardware requirements:
Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster
RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit)
Hard disk space: 16 GB for 32 bit OS , 20 GB for 64 bit OS
Graphics card: Microsoft DirectX 9 graphics device with WDDM driver
3. In Windows 10 we can create multiple profiles and it can be applied to the private and public network. Each connection will use the assigned profile and it will use the rules that are configured in the profiles.
4.You can use Region and Language to support additional languages on your Windows 10 computer. With the support of additional languages, you will be able to edit documents written in those languages.
You can also set locale specific to any region using this Option. To use desired Region and Language options, use the steps given below:
View the System Locale settings for Windows
1. Click Start, then Control Panel
2. Click Clock, Language and Region
3. Windows 10, Windows 8: Click Region
Windows 7: Click Region and Language
The Region and Language options dialog appears.
4. Click the Administrative tab
If there is no Advanced tab, then you are not logged in with administrative privileges.
5. Under the Language for non-Unicode programs section, click Change system locale and select the desired language.
6. Click OK
7. Restart the computer to apply the change.
The screenshot of changing System local settings is shown below
1. You must be logged in with an account that has administrative privileges in order to change the system locale.
2. The appropriate language packs should be installed on the operating system.
Disk partition in windows 10: To create a partition or volume (the two terms are often used interchangeably) on a hard disk, you must be logged in as an administrator, and there must be either unallocated disk space or free space within an extended partition on the hard disk. Open Disk Management and Right-click an unallocated region on your hard disk, and then select New Simple Volume. Then use appropriate options to format the partition.
To initialize a new disk using Disk Management use the steps given below:
1. Open Disk Management with administrator permissions.
2. To do so, in the search box on the taskbar, type Disk Management, select and hold (or right-click) Disk Management, then select Run as administrator > Yes. If you can't open it as an administrator, type Computer Management instead, and then go to Storage > Disk Management.
3. In Disk Management, right-click the disk you want to initialize, and then click Initialize Disk (shown here). If the disk is listed as Offline, first right-click it and select Online.
The screenshot of initializing the disk is shown below.
USB connectivity: To achieve proper USB connectivity six basic system elements must be present and working correctly.
1. Support from the BIOS
2. Support from the Operating System
3. Physical USB ports
4. A USB Device
5. The correct USB cable for the device
6. Drivers either from the OS and/or the peripheral maker.
Turn on a USB Port in BIOS:
1. Check the screen for instructions to boot to setup. Depending on the motherboard, the message might be "BIOS Setup: F8," "Press F8 to Enter BIOS." The keyboard command to enter the BIOS depends on the motherboard.
2. Use the arrow key to select "Advanced”, "Onboard Devices" or "Integrated Peripherals" from the menu. Press "Enter."
3. Select "USB Controller." Press "+" or "-" to change the setting to "Enabled."
4. Press "F10" to save and exit the BIOS.
Automatic restart: The automatic restart option in Windows 10 is enabled by default. Errors might occur but not display with Automatic restart enabled. Disable this option to allow the computer to display error messages instead of restarting.
Steps to disable Automatic restart option in windows 10
1. In Windows, search for and open View advanced system settings.
2. Click Settings in the Startup and Recovery section.
3. Remove the check mark next to Automatically restart, and then click OK.
4. Restart the computer.
The screenshot of disabling automatic restart option in windows 10 is shown below
The ability to choose the restart options is very convenient as you can view any error messages and restore failed hardware.
Windows 10 Updates: In Windows 10, Updates are commonly known as "Important", "Required", and "Optional". Important updates are those that relate to security and stability of the Operating System. Required updates are those that relate to added features, etc. Optional updates are the ones that pertain to device drivers, language packs, etc.
1. In Windows 10, updates are mandatory. However, a user may opt to manually update any Windows Updates by selecting appropriate options in the Updates applet.
2. Windows 10 periodically checks for updates. If you want to check manually, select the Start button , then select Settings > Update and security > Windows Update > Check for updates. If Windows Update says that your PC is up to date, then you have all the updates that are currently available for your PC.
3. All updates in Windows 10 are automatically downloaded and installed. You cannot selectively update here or disable Windows 10 update. However, there is a way to prevent Windows 10 OS to notify and ask for downloading the updates. If the data connection is marked as "metered" then Windows 10 will not download and install the updates automatically. It will only notify when the updates are available.
The possible upgrade scenarios from one edition of windows 10 to another edition of windows 10 are given below.
|From Windows 10||Any time Upgrade to Windows 10|
|Windows 10 Home||Windows 10 Home, Windows 10 Pro,Windows 10 Education, Windows 10 Enterprise|
|Windows 10 Pro||Windows 10 Pro,Windows 10 Education, Windows 10 Enterprise|
|Windows 10 Education||Windows 10 Education|
|Windows 10 Enterprise||Windows 10 Education,Windows 10 Enterprise|
More info: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/deployment/upgrade/windows-10-upgrade-paths
Boot options in windows 10: Pressing F8 or the SHIFT + F8 keys on your keyboard to enter Safe Mode, no longer work on windows 10. These methods stopped working because the Windows 10 start procedure became faster than ever before. However, that does not mean that Windows 10 has no Safe Mode. It is just that to get to it you have to follow other procedures. Here are all the ways you can start Windows 10 in Safe Mode:
Steps for starting Safe Mode from the sign-in screen:
1. Restart your computer.
2. On the sign-in screen, select 'Power' > 'Restart' while holding down the Shift key.
3. Your computer will restart again but this time will load an options screen. Select 'Troubleshoot' > 'Advanced options' > 'Startup Settings' > 'Restart'.
4. After Windows 10 restarts one more time, you can choose which boot options you want to be enabled. To get into Safe Mode, you have three different options:
Standard Safe Mode - press the 4 or the F4 key on your keyboard to start it
Safe Mode with Networking- press 5 or F5
Safe Mode with Command Prompt- press either 6 or F6
Log into Windows 10 Safe Mode with a user account that has administrator permissions, and perform the changes you want.
The Advanced Boot Options menu lets you start Windows in advanced troubleshooting modes. The options available are
1. Enable debugging
2. Enable boot logging
3. Enable low-resolution video
4. Enable Safe Mode
5. Enable Safe Mode with Networking
6. Enable Safe Mode with Command Prompt
7. Disable driver signature enforcement
8. Disable early launch anti-malware protection
9. Disable automatic restart after failure
The screenshot of advanced boot option in windows 10 is shown below
System Restore in windows 10: If your Microsoft Windows 10 based computer does not start correctly or if it does not start at all, you can use the Windows Recovery Options to help you recover your system software. Backup useful files and documents when you are trying to perform System Restore on your computer.
1. System Restore Tool: System Restore available in the Recovery option in Control Panel in Windows 10. And you won’t be able to use it if you haven’t turned it on. Here is the path where you can find System Restore tool in Windows 10:
1. Go to Control Panel and click on System and Security.
2. Click System > System protection > Select the drive that you want to create a restore point for and click Create.
2. System Repair recovery tool: Startup Repair is a Windows recovery tool that can fix certain system problems that might prevent Windows from starting. Startup Repair scans your PC for the problem and then tries to fix it so your PC can start correctly.
Startup Repair is one of the recovery tools in Advanced Startup options. This set of tools is located on your PC's hard disk (recovery partition), Windows installation media, and a recovery drive.
Some of the windows 10 features
One of the standout new features found in Windows 10 is the addition of Cortana. For those unfamiliar, Cortana is a voice-activated personal assistant. You can use it to get weather forecasts, set reminders,send email, find files, search the Internet and so on.
For privacy issues, Windows 10 Education does not include Cortana, since this edition is used for academic organizations. Windows 10 Home, Pro, and Enterprise all contain Cortana.
With the launch of Windows 10 comes Edge , Microsoft's new built-in browser that's meant to replace Internet Explorer. Microsoft Edge is the default browser for all Windows 10 devices. It’s built to be highly compatible with the modern web. For some enterprise web apps and a small set of sites that were built to work with older technologies like ActiveX, you can use Enterprise Mode to automatically send users to Internet Explorer 11.
Deployment Image & Servicing Management or commonly you know as DISM is the tool which settles down component store falsification. However, this utility is also capable of rectifying and handling Windows image. In addition, it can also manage Windows Recovery Environment, Windows Setup and Windows PE.
In Windows 10, you can enable wake on authentication. If you don't want to sign back, you can turn it off. When turned off, when the PC wakes up from Sleep mode, it won't prompt for password. If you use your PC in public places, it is recommended to turn on wake-up authentication to avoid unscrupulous people accessing your computer