1. ISL: A Cisco proprietary trunking protocol, associated with Ethernet. Supported by Catalyst switches and routers. ISL uses "encapsulation" of Ethernet frame for multiplexing multiple VLANs over a trunk line.
2. 802.1Q: This is an IEEE standard for the VLAN trunking protocols, associated with Ethernet. A VLAN identifier is inserted into the frame header, a technique called frame tagging.
3. 802.10: A Cisco proprietary method for transporting VLAN information inside the standard 802.10 FDDI frames.
4. LANE: LANE stands for LAN Emulation and is associated with ATM. This is an IEEE standard for transporting frames over ATM networks.
Token Ring is an IEEE 802.5 standard whose topology is physically a star but logically a ring. 10BaseT is IEEE 802.3 standard whose topology is physically a star but logically a bus.
5. IEEE 802.3 is a collection of IEEE standards
IEEE 802.5 is the Token Ring standard
802.3u is a standard that pertains to 100BASE-TX, 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-FX Fast Ethernet
6. Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 802.1d is used to prevent routing loops. In Cisco Catalyst 5000 series switches, use BPDUs (Bridge Protocol Data Units) to determine the spanning tree topology. STP uses a Tree Algorithm (STA) to prevent loops, resulting in a stable network topology.