CCNP ENCOR 350-401 Exam Cram Notes

I. Architecture

2. Analyze design principles of a WLAN deployment

2.1 Wireless deployment models (centralized, distributed, controller-less, controller based, cloud, remote branch)

Note that the connectivity was slow or intermittent. If there were any mode/SSID mismatch, there wouldn't be any communication at all. It is also likely that the wireless phones, filing cabinets, and antenna mismatch errors are adding to the problem.

A trunk link can be negotiated between two switches only if both switches belong to the same VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) management domain or, if one or both switches have not defined their VTP domain (that is, the NULL domain). If the two switches are in different VTP domains and trunking is desired between them, you must set the trunk links to ON mode or no-negotiate mode. This setting forces the trunk to be established.

A hacker begins a DDoS attack by exploiting a vulnerability in one computer system and making it the DDoS "master", also called as "zombie". It is from the zombie that the intruder identifies and communicates with other systems that can be compromised. The intruder loads hacking tools on the compromised systems. With a single command, the intruder instructs the controlled machines to launch one of many flood attacks against a specified target. This causes Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack on the target computer.

The SSID needs to be consistent for a wireless client to roam between LWAPs that are managed by the same WLC. However, if the LAPs are managed by different WLCs, then the Mobility group must be same on the WLCs. A Mobility Group is a group of Wireless LAN Controllers (WLCs) in a network with the same Mobility Group name. These WLCs can dynamically share context and state of client devices, WLC loading information, and can also forward data traffic among them, which enables inter-controller wireless LAN roaming and controller redundancy. Note that the WLCs may be in the same or different IP subnet or VLAN. WLCs use what is known as Ether-IPtunnel to transfer User traffic from one WLC to another.

Assuming that a User (or Client) originally joined the WLAN on WLC1, WLC1 will always refer to itself as the User's anchor point. Any controller that is serving the User from a different subnet is known as a foreign agent. As the client continues to roam, the anchor WLC will follow its movement by shifting the Ether-IP tunnel to connect with the User's foreign WLC.

In order for a wireless client to seamlessly roam between mobility group members (WLCs), WLAN's SSID and security configuration must be configured identically across all WLCs comprising the mobility group.

Intruder Prevention System (IPS): IPS analyses network traffic, can report and take corrective action on traffic that it deems malicious or harmful. This can be implemented as an appliance, as a blade, or as a module in an ASA or IOS router. The primary method for identifying problem traffic is through signature matching.

Cisco Security Manager (CSM): This is an enterprise-level configuration tool that you can use to manage most security devices.

Cisco Security Intelligence Operations (SIO) Service: The SIO researches and analyses threats and provides real-time updates on these threats. There is also an application for smart phones.

2.2 Differentiate between on-premises and cloud infrastructure deployments

Different cloud models are explained below:

Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.

Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.

Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but that are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology enabling data and application portability.

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