41. SNMP is a part of TCP/IP suite of protocols and used for
management of network. With proper SNMP Manager, it is possible
to track network events like logon/logoff, failed authentications,
DNS (Domain Name Service) is used for resolution of domain
names to IP addresses.
WINS, LMHOSTS is used for resolution of NetBIOS names to
DHCP is Dynamic Host Computer Protocol, which leases IP
addresses and other parameters like subnet mask, default gateway
to client computers dynamically.
HOSTS file is used like DNS for resolving Domain names,
whereas LMHOSTS file is used like WINS for resolving NetBIOS
names. Note that, if you are using HOSTS file for resolving
Domain names, you need to load the HOSTS file on all computers
on the network that need to access the domain names. This is
in contrast with DNS, which is located on a central server.
43. TCP/IP utilities:
NBTSTAT This utility displays current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections,
and display NetBIOS name cache.
NETSTAT Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections
since the server was last booted
TRACERT This command is used to determine which route a packet
takes to reach its destination from source.
IPCONFIG Displays Windows IP configuration information.
NSLOOKUP This utility enables users to interact with a DNS server
and display resource records.
ROUTE This command can be used to display and edit static routing
44. You have to assign the IP address for your DHCP server statically.
A DHCP server can't assign an IP address to itself. Similarly, some
other Servers that require static assignment of IP addresses are
your DNS server, and WINS server.
Microsoft Exchange Server is an example of Mail Server.
A Web Server is an HTTP Server and serves Web pages.
A Proxy Server usually sits in between your LAN and the
external Internet. It directs all the requests to the Internet
from the LAN.
An SQL Server is Microsoft's version of an client/server
type database Server.
A RAS server is a Windows-based server with the RAS service
installed and configured. RAS server allows RAS clients to dial
into the network via the RAS server.
A Web Server delivers requested Web pages. When a client
request a page, a web server sends it to the clients browser
for viewing. Two most widely used web servers are Apache and
Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).
46. Backup methods:
There are three main Backup methods:
Full Backup: Backs up all data. Takes the longest time to
backup, but easy to restore since all files are at one place
and you don't need previous back-ups.
Incremental backup: Only backs up files added or changed
since last backup. Quick to back up, but restore requires multiple
tapes (last full backup tape plus all incremental tapes since
the last full backup).
Only backs up files since last FULL backup. Each backup
takes a little longer, but restore requires only two tapes (most
recent full backup and most recent differential backup).
Both Full backup and Incremental backups reset the archive
attribute on a file.
47. All the following parameters need to be taken care of while
choosing the Server room.
Temperature / Humidity: Usually air-conditioned environment
is suitable for the server room.
Anti Static precaution: Precaution need to be taken to prevent
static electricity build up in your server room This can be
done by choosing proper chairs/ tables, floor mats, and other
anti static material.
The power supply need to be very conditioned. UPS of appropriate
rating is a good choice.
48. All the following precautions you need to take while upgrading
Check that BIOS upgrade is appropriate to your server by
looking at the BIOS manufacturer's web site or documentation.
Plan for the upgrade preferably during non-working hours,
as the upgrade may cause an interruption of services for short
Observe the server events log for some time even after the
successful upgrade to ensure that every thing is going smoothly.
Ensure that a valid backup is available, so that the system
and user files can be restored in any unforeseen event.
49. UNIX/ Linux is usually administered by writing scripts and
through configuration files. Other operating systems like Windows
NT and Netware are GUI based and intuitive.
50. 'eDirectory' is Novell's directory platform that is cross
platform and LDAP based. Similarly, 'Active Directory' is Microsoft's
solution and based on the LDAP protocol. Windows 2000 Server Operating
systems and NetWare are LDAP based.