30. With Write-Through cache, each write operation to the cache is accompanied by a write operation to the main memory. That means, the data is written to the cache and the main memory at the same time.
With Write-Back cache, the CPU writes to the cache first. But the actual updating of main memory takes place at a later time.
31. EDO (Extended Data Out) memory is a type of RAM chip that will make improvements on the time to read from memory.
ECC (Error Checking and Correcting) memory means that data that is being read or transmitted will be checked for errors and, if necessary, corrected immediately.
With Registered memory, the memory chips contain registers that will re-drive the signal as it goes through the memory chip.
32. Processor package types:
33. Hot swapping/ hot spare:
34. Unbuffered: Here the chipset controller communicates directly with the memory.
Buffered memory: A buffer isolates the memory from the controller chipset to minimize the load times that the chipset experiences. The load times can be bigger as the memory size increases.
35. Bus Mastering is a feature supported by some bus architectures that enables a controller connected to the bus to communicate directly with other devices on the bus without going through the CPU. Most modern bus architectures, including PCI, support bus mastering because it improves performance.
36. SDRAM is the standard used for mother boards that support 100MHz memory buses. Older DRAM technologies, such as EDO DRAM are designed for use with 66MHz memory bus.
37. While using Microsoft operating systems, only computers with Windows NT 4.0 or above can work as DHCP server. Any computer with Windows operating system can be a DHCP client.
38. The following tools are available for monitoring and optimization in Windows NT server in running in TCP/IP environment:
1. SNMP: SNMP can be used for monitoring and managing other nodes in a TCP/IP network. This include monitoring of WINS service, DHCP service, create performance counters related to TCP/IP etc.
2. Performance Monitor: This can be used to monitor several counters related to disk, memory, processor, cache etc.
3. Network Monitor: The Network Monitor monitors the data stream on the network and has access to the following information:
4. Event Viewer: Event Viewer displays information whether all the services / applications have started or running properly.
39. ISA, EISA, and PCI bus:
40. Memory chips: