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51.Routing metrics used by IGRP:
Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load.
52. The metric limit for link-state protocols is 65,533
53. Following are the possible solutions for preventing routing loops.
54. IP RIP based networks send the complete routing table during update. The default update interval is 30 seconds. IGRP update packet is sent every 90 seconds by default.
55. For IGRP routing, you need to provide the AS (Autonomous System) number in the command. Routers need AS number to exchange routing information. Routers belonging to same AS exchange routing information. OSPF, and IGRP use AS numbers.
56. CDP stands for Cisco Discovery Protocol. This protocol is proprietary of Cisco. CDP runs SNAP (Sub network Access Protocol) at the Data Link Layer. Two Cisco devices running two different Network layer protocol can still communicate and learn about each other.
57. Show IP protocol: This command will show information on RIP timers including routing update timer (30sec default), hold-down timer (default 180sec). It also displays the number of seconds due for next update (this is fraction of update timer). This command also gives the network number for which IP RIP is enabled, Gateway, and the default metric.
Show IP route: This command will display the IP routing table entries. In addition, it displays the Gateway of last resort (if one is assigned). It also displays the codes used for various types of routes. Some of the important codes are:
C: directly connected;
S: Statically connected
I : IGRP
R : RIP
2. Show IP interface: This command shows you interface-wise information such as IP address assigned to each interface, whether the interface is up, MTU etc.
3. Debug IP RIP: Debug IP RIP will turn the RIP debugging ON. This will display a continuous list of routing updates as they are sent and received. This leads to lot of overhead, which is the reason that you use "undebug ip rip" to turn-off debugging as soon as you finish with debugging.
58. Cisco router boot configuration commands:
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