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31. Ethernet_II has a type field to identify the upper-layer protocol. 802.3 has only a length field andcan't identify the upper-layer protocol.
32.To find valid hosts given an IP address (say 22.214.171.124) and a subnet mask (sat a 12-bit subnet). The valid hosts are determined as below:
A 12-bit subnet mask gives us 255.255.255.240; 4094 subnets, each with 14 hosts. (Host addresses of all zeros and all 1s can't be assigned). The 126.96.36.199 is in the 48 subnet range. The valid range is through 49 - 62. 63 is a broadcast address.
Here is how you get the subnet range:
1. Find the subnet mask. In this case, default subnet mask for Class B address is 255.255.0.0. There are additional; 12 bits in the subnet mask. Now the subnet mask looks like: 11111111.11111111.11111111.11110000. This is equal to 255.255.255.240.0.
2.Now, deduct the lowest value octet (Which is non zero), from 256. Here, (256-240)=16.
This is the value that the subnets are incremented. Therefore, you will have hosts with values from:
188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206 (All 0s and all 1s host addresses can
not be used)
220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168
22.214.171.124 to 126.96.36.199
188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206 and so on.
It is important to know that subnets are incrementing here by a factor of 16.
33.The following are some important commands that can be used
to edit and review command history buffer. It will be useful to
practice these commands.
<ctrl> A : Move to the beginning of the command line
<ctrl> E : Move to the end of the command line
<ctrl> F : Move forward one character, same as using "Right Arrow".
<ctrl> B : Move backward one character, same as using "Left Arrow".
<ctrl> P : Repeat Previous command, same as using "Up Arrow".
<ctrl> N : Repeat Next (more recent) command, same as using "Down Arrow".
<esc> B : Moves to beginning of previous word.
<esc> F : Moves to beginning of next word.
<ctrl>R : Creates new command prompt, followed by all the characters typed at the last one.
34. The following are some frequently used COPY commands:
COPY RUNNING-CONFIGURATION STARTUP-CONFIGURATION (alternatively, you can use an older version of the command, WRITE MEMORY): This command saves the current configuration to NVRAM.
COPY STARTUP RUNNING - This command merges configuration from NVRAM to RAM.
COPY FLASH TFTP - Copies current IOS from router flash memory to TFTP server.
COPY TFTP FLASH - Copies image file from TFTP server to flash. This is used to upgrade the IOS image file to a newer version, or if your IOS image becomes corrupt.
35. The banner is displayed whenever anyone logs in to your Cisco router. The syntax is
A banner is displayed whenever anyone logs in to your Cisco router.
The syntax for configuring the banner is
"banner motd # " . MOTD stands for "Message Of The Day".
# symbol signifies the start of the banner message to the router. You will be prompted for the message to be displayed. You need to enter "#" symbol at the end of the message, signifying that the msg has ended.
36. Router modes of operation:
1. User EXEC mode:- This is the LOWEST level of access. This allows examination of router status, see routing tables, and do some diagnostics. However, you cannot change the router configuration, view the configuration files, or control the router in any way. The prompt in this mode is "Router>".
2. Privileged (enable) EXEC mode:- This mode allows you to have all the privileges of EXEC (user) mode plus commands that enable you to view configuration files, change the router configuration, perform troubleshooting that could potentially disrupt traffic. The default prompt for this mode is "Router#".
3. Global Configuration mode (Prompt: Router (Config)#):-Global configuration mode allows you to perform tasks that affect the entire router, such as naming the router, configuration of banner messages, enabling routed protocols, and generally anything that affects the operation of the entire router.
When you first switch on a router, you enter Setup mode. Setup mode is different from configuration mode in that setup mode appears when there is no configuration file present. Upon entering setup mode, you can supply some basic configuration parameters to Cisco router.
37. You can use "tab" to complete the command that you are typing.
38. SHOW command is extensively used for seeing the status and configuration information of the router.
Some of the frequently used commands are:
SHOW RUNNING-CONFIGURATION -This command displays the router's active configuration file, passwords, system name, and interface settings, interfaces IP addresses etc.
SHOW INTERFACE - Shows status and configuration information of the local interfaces. The first line says something like "TokenRing1 is up, line protocol is up". The first part "TokenRing1 is up" describes the physical layer components such as electrical cabling and signaling are OK. The second part "line protocol is up" means that the router is detecting keep-alive messages. The router may be put into administratively down status, at which point the line would read, "TokenRing1 is administratively down, line protocol is down."
SHOW INTERFACE SERIAL 0 - Shows the serial 0 configuration.
SHOW INTERFACES - Displays statistics for all interfaces configured on the switch.
SHOW PROCESS - Displays a router's CPU utilization.
SHOW CONFIG - Displays information on the startup configuration.
SHOW VERSION - Displays information about the system hardware (RAM/ROM), software version, names of configuration files, and boot-images. This command will also show the current configuration register value.
39. The Cisco router can be configured from many locations.
1. Console port: During the initial installation, you configure the router from a console terminal connected to the "Console port" of the router.
2. Virtual Terminals (vty): A virtual terminal (vty) is typically accessed through Telnet. A router can be accessed through vty after it the initial installation in the network. There are five virtual terminals, namely, vty0,vty1,vty2,vty3,vty4.
3. Auxiliary Port: you can configure a router through auxiliary port. Typically, a modem is used to configure the modem through aux port.
4. TFTP Server: Configuration information can be downloaded from a TFTP server over the network.
5. NMS (Network Management Station): You can also manage router configuration through NMS such as CiscoWorks or HP OpenView.
40. There are five different types of passwords:
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