1. FTP: 21, stands for File Transfer Protocol
23, stands for Telnetting from a remote terminal to a TelnetServer
3. SMTP: 25, stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
4. HTTP/WWW: 80, stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
5. POP3: 110, stands for Post Office Protocol
59)Some of the frequently encountered problems using
laser printers and probable causes are as given below:
1. Speckled pages: The causes for this may be a. The
failure to clean the drum after printing properly, or b.
The drum might have developed scratches
2. Blank pages: The causes for white pages may be, A.
The toner would have dried out, replace the toner. B. The
transfer corona, that is responsible for transferring the
toner to the drum might have failed. C. The High Voltage
Power Supply (HVPS) failure will also result in white pages.
3. Ghosted Images: Ghosting occurs when previously printed
pages are printed again, though much lighter than the present
image. The most likely cause is that the erasure lamp might
not be working properly, thus leaving some charges representing
the earlier image left on the photosensitive drum before
new image is written. Also check the cleaning blade, which
is responsible for scaping the residual toner.
4. Smudged images: If the fusing fails, the toner will
not bond with the paper. Check the halogen lamp responsible
60)Some of the important commands useful in trouble shooting
TCP/IP networks are:
I. Ipconfig: Displays TCP/IP configuration values, including
IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway.
II. Ping: This command can be used to verify whether
the target ip address or host name is present. You need
to specify the target IP address or host name.
III. route: Displays and manipulates route information.
iv: Tracert: Determines the route packets take to reach
the specified destination.
SRAM - Statit Random Access Memory - Uses transistors
to store information
DRAM - Dynamic Random Access Memory
- Need to be refreshed to retain data.
ROM - Read Only
Memory - Data in ROM can not be erased or changed
- Programmable ROM - Once programmed, data can't be erased
EPROM - Erasable PROM - Data can be erased
by ultraviolet light and can be reprogrammed using a programmer.
EEPROM - Electronically Erasable PROM - Data can be erased
electrically.Chip can then be reprogrammed. EEPROMs are
frequently used to store BIOS.
SSID, short for service set identifier, a unique identifier
attached to the header of packets sent over a WLAN that
acts as a password when a mobile device tries to connect
to the Access Point. The SSID differentiates one WLAN from
another, so all access points and all devices attempting
to connect to a specific WLAN must use the same SSID.
SSID needs to be configured on the laptop for connecting
to the Access Point. The DHCP server typically supplies
IP address, DNS server information, and subnet mask.
Standard Ethernet supports 10Mbps
Fast Ethernet supports
speeds up to 100Mbps
Gigabit Ethernet supports speeds
up to 1 Gbps
System Restore takes a "snapshot" of critical system
files and some program files and stores this information
as restore points. You can use these restore points to return
Windows XP to a previous state.
61)TCP/IP protocol stack is installed by default when
you install Windows 2000 on a computer.
TCP/IP is the protocol used when you are Telnetting to
a remote host. HTTP is used for accessing the World Wide
Telnet is used for terminal emulation that runs programs
FTP is used to transfer files.
The automatic restart option in Windows XP is enabled
by default. As a result, if there is any major error, the
Operating System will automatically restart. This can be
disabled using System applet in the Control Panel.
The best ways to find whether a new hardware is supported
by your Windows OS is to check the manufacturer's documentation
first, and then the Hardware Compatibility List (HCL).
62)The BIOS password is stored in CMOS memory that is
maintained while the PC is powered off by a small battery,
which is attached to the motherboard. Refer to the motherboard
manual to find the jumper that clears the BIOS password.
Alternatively, if you remove this battery, all CMOS information
(including the BIOS password) will be lost.
The command "format a: /s" can be used to format the
floppy disk in drive A, and at the same time make it bootable.
The command SMARTDRV /C forces SmartDrive to write out
any write cached data. You can write delayed data even by
pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del. If you Reset or Power Off/On, the
delayed data will be lost.
The Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) allows
the computer to store the Real Time Clock (RTC)and other
device information even after the computer is switched off
and on. This is achieved by using a battery just for CMOS.
The connector types commonly used for Fiber Optic networking
are SC,ST, or MIC connectors. IDC/UDC is used in Token Ring
networks. RJ-45, BNC connectors are commonly used in Ethernet
63)When a customer is explaining a complex problem that
he has been facing, it is appropriate to take notes while
he explains the problem. It will ensure that you do not
miss any important points. It will also ensure the customer
that you are seriously listening to what he is saying.
If your customer is expecting you at a specified time,
it is appropriate to call the customer over phone, and inform
him that you would be late.
The default spool folder is located at: Systemroot\System32\spool\printers.
For example, if the OS is residing on C drive, the default
location will be: "C:\\WINNT\System32\spool\printers".
You can access this location through:
Start -> Printers -> File -> Server Properties
-> Advanced tab. Type in the new spool location over
the default location.
The Device Manager lists all the hardware devices installed
on your system. You can also update any existing drivers,
as well as change the hardware settings. You use Add/ Remove
Hardware to install new hardware. Accessibility options
is primarily used to configure the keyboard, display, and
mouse options on a computer to accommodate the users who
are physically handicapped. The Add/ Remove Programs is
used to install / uninstall 3rd party software. This is
also used for installing / uninstalling Windows 2000 optional
The Device Manager provides the status of the devices
installed in the system.
The File System Boot Sector is the first physical sector
on any logical volume.
The first physical sector on any bootable hard disk contains
Master Boot Record, MBR.
64)The following are major characteristics of a floppy
1. The ribbon cable connecting the floppy drive to the
mother board, is 34 wires wide.
2. There can be a maximum
of two floppy drives in a PC
3. The floppy ribbon cable
is distinguished easily from that of an IDE cable by a small
twist in the cable. The purpose of the twist is to differentiate
between floppy drive A and floppy drive B.
The following are most commonly used modem commands:
Modem commands-Command function
Answer the phone
ATD ....................... Dial the
phone, ATDT for Tone dialing, ATDP for Pulse dialing
ATH ....................... Hang up
AT&F ....................... Reset modem parameters
and settings to factory defaults
Write the current parameter values and settings
65)The following are the 6 steps in the ElectroPhotographic
(EP) print process of Laser Printer:
1. Cleaning: Cleaning the photosensitive drum includes
residual toner left on the drum and removing the electrical
charges left out on the drum. The physical cleaning is done
with a rubber blade and the electrical charge cleaning is
done with erasure lamps.
2. Charging: The next step in printing, is to charge
the photo sensitive drum with high negative charge, this
is done with the help of a corona wire.
3. Writing: A laser (type 3) sweeps the entire length
of the drum, creating the static image of the matter to
be printed. The places where the laser travel, the highly
charges are nutralized. Other places of the drum, it remains
highly negatively charged.
4. Developing: Now drum gets in close proximity to the
toner. Because the toner is negatively charged, it gets
attracted to the areas where the drum is neutral. It will
not be attracted to the places where the drum is highly
negatively charged. Thus the image of the page to be printed
formed on the photosensitive drum.
5. Transferring: Now, the toner on the drum gets attracted
toward the paper, by using highly positive charges developed
on the surface of the paper. The "transfer corona" is used
to generate highly positive charge on the paper surface
and to attract the toner from the drum. Thus the image of
the page to be printed formed on the paper. But still, the
toner is loose and can get easily smeared.
6. Fusing: In order to permanently bond the toner particles
to the paper, the paper is passed through rollers. One of
the rollers, the non stick roller is heated by a high intensity
lamp, generating the heat necessary to bond the toner to
the surface of the paper.
The following are the types of backup:
Full backup: Here all files that have been chosen for
backup are backed up, irrespective of whether the archive
bit is set or not set. Archive bit is set (ON) after backup.
Incremental backup: Here only the files that have been
created or have changed since the previous full or incremental
backup will be backed up. The archive bit is set after a
file is backed up. The next Incremental backup will backup
files that have changed since previous full or incremental
Differential backup: Here, the files that have changed
or created since the last full backup will be backed up.
Note that, unlike Incremental backup, the archive bit is
not set on a differential backup. The result of this is
that the next differential backup will include files that
were backed up during earlier Differential backups.
66)The following are types of PCMCIA (PC card) cards:
1. Type I: 3.3 mm thick. Used for memory upgrade cards.
2. Type II: 5 mm thick. Modem and network cards. Some are
combination Modem/NIC cards.
3. Type III: 10.5 mm thick.
Used in PC card hard drives
The generic standard that defines wireless LAN technologies
is 802.11. Specifically, the following standards exist:
a. 802.11: applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or
2 Mbps transmission in the 2.4 GHz band.
an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and
provides up to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band.
c. 802.11b (initially
referred to as 802.11 or Wi-Fi): an extension to 802.11
that applies to wireless LAN and provides up to 11 Mbps
transmission in the 2.4 GHz band.
d. 802.11g: applies
to wireless LANs and provides 20+ Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band.
67)The widely used interface cables have the following
1. floppy-34 pin,
2. IDE-40 pin,
3. SCSI-50 pin,
4. SCSI Ultra wide-68 pin
The ISP provides the information on the SMTP, and POP
server addresses. You need to feed this information to the
mail client while configuring to send and receive e-mail.
The manufacturer specifies the field replaceable parts,
and usually, the print heads and toner catridges are the
only FRUs (Field Replaceable Parts).
The maximum recommended length of a serial cable for
printing applications is 25 feet. Above this length, it
may result in cross talk, or excessive fading of the signal.
68)The maximum specified transmission speed for 10BaseT
Ethernet is 10Mbps. For 100BaseT, it is 100Mbps.
The most commonly used port for connecting digital camera
to a desktop computer is serial port, and USB port is gaining
popularity as more and more PCs support USB.
The most likely cause for sporadic movement of mouse
is dirt. If dirt has entered the mouse, clean the dirt with
IPA, or cotton wetted in soap water.
The most likely problem if you hear scratching sound
of a hard disk is that the hard disk read/write head is
scratching the disk surface. It often results in the total
failure of the disk. If you find that you can still read/write
to the disk, backup the hard disk and replace immediately.
The most probable cause that the screen is dumping garbled
characters is that the communication settings are not correct.
Check the speed, parity, start/stop bits etc. If the serial
port parameters are correct, then you need to check the
cable, such as straight/cross cable and the pin connections.
69)The motherboard displayed has the following expansion
PCI slots : 5 (distinguished by white color, usually
the number of PCI slots available on a motherboard varies
from 3 to 6)
ISA slots: 2 (distinguished by black color,
longer than PCI slots, placed next to PCI slots.)
slot: 1 ( The single slot, next to 5 white PCI slots is
AGP slot in brown color. Note that there will be only one
The MSDS contains wealth of information including Product
and Company information, First aid measures, Handling and
storage, Physical and chemical properties, etc.
The primary partition can be made bootable, by marking
partition as active. The extended partition can not be marked
as active partition.
The red stripe signifies wire going to pin number 1.
Also, a floppy cable has 34 wires where as an IDE cable
has 40 wires. Ultra IDE cable has 80 wires, and handles
better speeds compared to IDE cable with 40 wires. The additional
wires are introduced to reduce noise and thereby improving
The Registry contains the important information about
the devices and applications. Any failure to backup the
registry may require re-installation of the complete system.
70)If you install a second hard drive, and assuming that
the first hard drive has C, D, and E partitions, and the
second drive has tow partitions, the revised drive assignment
looks as follows:
Drive 1: C (Primary Partition), E (First logical Drive),
F (Second logical Drive)
Drive 2: D (Primary Partition),
G( for Logical drive on Extended Partition)
In addition, please note the following:
DOS, Windows3.1 Windows 95/ 98 operating systems share
the following criteria:
1. Each can have only one primary partition per hard
2. The primary partition is automatically assigned
a drive letter
3. Each hard disk can have only one Extended
4. You can create one or more logical drives
in the Extended partition.
5. The drive letters are assigned
manually to logical drives
71)The smallest addressable unit in a hard disk is a
The storage capacity of various types of floppy disks
that you need to know as part of A+ certification is given
5 1/4" ---DSDD----360KB
5 1/4" ---DSHD----1.2MB
3 1/2" ---DSDD----720KB
3 1/2" ---DSHD----1.44MB
3 1/2" ---DSED----2.88MB
DSDD: Double Sided Double Density
DSHD: Double Sided
DSED: Double Sided Extra Density
The switch /s will make all the files and sub directories
to be marked as archive.
72)The table below compares various video types:
Video monitor -----Max. Color depth ------Max. Resolution
CGA -------------------16 Colors-----------------160X100
SVGA-----------------16 Million Colors------1280X1024
or even more
While cleaning a computer CPU box, the use of compressed
air is most appropriate. Use of vacuum cleaner may tend
to create ESD. A nylon brush also creates electrostatic
charges. Soap water is not recommended to clean PCAs.
73)The various CD speeds are as below:
For normal CD drives:
16X, 32X, 48X, 52X etc. Format:
For CD-R drives:
4X24, 8X32, 16X32 etc.
Format:[write speed]X[read speed]
Format: [write speed]X[re-write
The various file systems supported by Windows 2000 are:
3. FAT: Also called FAT16, supported by all Microsoft
4. FAT32: Also supported by Win 95
OSR2 and Win98
6. NTFS: This is not supported by Win95/98
7. CDFS (Compact Disk File System, used to access CDs)
8. UDF (Universal Disk Format, used to access DVDs)
74)There are 3 types of PCMCIA cards:
Type I cards have thickness of 3.3mm
Type II cards
have thickness of 5.0mm
Type III cards have thickness
All PC cards have dimensions of 85.6mm by 54
Each type of card uses the same 68-pin connector (a pin
is a conduit inside a port that the computer uses to access
peripherals connected to that port), so the cards are downward
compatible. That means if you have a Type III slot or socket
on your notebook computer you can connect a Type II card
as well, and if you have a Type II slot, you can connect
a Type I card in that slot. A Type III card will not fit
in a Type II slot, however.
75)Type I PC cards are generally used for memory cards
Type I PC cards are generally used for memory cards
Type II PC cards are generally used for Network cards, Modem
Type III PC cards are generally meant for
rotating mass storage devices such as removable hard disk,
Thin co-axial and thick co-axial cables have conductive
grounding sheath surrounding the center conductor. Therefore,
the electromagnetic interference (EMI) is significantly
To access a file, the correct UNC path is \\MYCOMPUTER\DIRS\MYDIR\MYFILE
76)To achieve proper USB connectivity six basic system
elements must be present and working correctly.
1) Support from the BIOS
2) Support from the Operating
3) Physical USB ports
4) A USB Device
The correct USB cable for the device
6) Drivers either
from the OS and/or the peripheral maker
To clean a keyboard, soak it in a distilled demineralized
water as soon as possible after the spill. Take precaution
to remove the keyboard before doing so, and dry it before
77)To connect a USB device,
1. The computer supports USB.
2. The USB should be
enabled in the BIOS,
If both the above conditions are met, USB Controller
is listed in the Device Manager. If it's not listed in the
Device Manager, you can suspect that the USB was not enabled
in the BIOS.
To insert a new file extension in your Windows computer,
you use Windows explorer, and select the application. Then,
Tools -> Folder Option -> File Types. Configure the
To make floppy in drive A bootable, the command SYS A:
should be given.
To measure DC current, open the circuit at the point
where you want to measure the current. Place the multimeter
probes in series with the circuit.
78)Token Ring network can support data transfer at 4
Mbps or 16 Mbps.
Token Ring networks use Multi-Station Access Unit (MAU).
Token Ring was created by IBM, and standardized by IEEE
under the 802.5 specification. The original IBM Token Ring
specification uses IBM Class 1 STP cabling with IBM proprietary
connectors. This connector is called the IBM-type Data Connector
(IDC) or Universal Data Connector (UDC), and is male nor
TRACERT command can be used to determine the path that
a packet takes while traversing on the network before reaching
Under FAT file system, the maximum size of a cluster
is 32 KB and the maximum number of clusters is 65536. Therefore,
the maximum size of a partitions is the number of clusters
multiplied by the max size of the cluster, which is equivalent
to 2 GB. Remember that 1 KB = 1024 bytes.