When working on computers, use special ESD wrist strap.
Do not directly ground yourself with a piece of wire. An
ESD wrist strap has built-in resistor to prevent electric
shock. Use specially designed grounded ESD mats. Do not
wear synthetic clothing. Place all electronic components
into anti static bags. Anti static bags can be reused. Keep
your workplace clean.
83)When you have two hard disk drives, the following
two combinations are possible:
1. Install the drives one each on primary and secondary
controllers and designate both as Masters.
both the drives on the primary controller and designate
one as Master and the other as Slave.
When you install Windows 2000 in the same folder as that
of Windows 95/ Windows 98/ Windows NT, the operating system
gets upgraded to Windows 2000.
When you upgrade to Windows 2000, you need to ensure
that you have software upgrade packs available. It is very
much possible that an application that was working properly
may not work the same way after the upgrade of OS. You need
to contact the vendor for upgrade pack for any application(s)
you are using. If the upgrade packs are not available, and
the application is critical, you may need to reconsider
the upgradation of OS.
Windows 2000 advanced startup options can be accessed
by pressing F8 key when prompted during the beginning of
the Windows 2000 Professional boot process.
84)Windows 2000 Operating systems support 5 different
1. Simple volumes
2. Spanned volumes
4. Mirrored volumes
5. RAID-5 volumes
A simple volume consists of a formatted disk on a single
A Spanned volume consists of disk space on more than
one hard disk.
A Striped volume has disk space on 2 or more disks. The
disk spaces must be same on all disks. Fastest disk access
among all volume types. RAID level 0.
A mirrored volume consists of a Simple volume that is
mirrored in total, onto a second dynamic disk. Provides
highest level of fault tolerance. Mirroring is RAID level
A RAID-5 volume consists of identical sized disk space
located on three or more dynamic disks. Here any single
disk failures can be recovered.
Note that Windows 2000 Professional doesn't support Mirrored
and RAID-5 volumes, where as other Windows 2000 Operating
Systems (2000 Server, Advanced Server) support.
Windows 2000 professional supports three file system
types: FAT (also known as FAT16, FAT32, and NTFS).
Windows 95 OSR2, and Windows 98 support FAT, and FAT32.
85)Windows 2000 provides two versions of Registry Editor
1. Regedt32.exe (32-bit) and
2. Regedit.exe (16-bit).
Regedt32.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot\system32
folder, while Regedit.exe is automatically installed in
the systemroot folder. Regedit.exe is primarily used for
its search capabilities as it doesn't support all functions
and data types.
Windows XP/2000 has a backup utility that can be used
to backup or restore files and folders. In Windows 2000,
you can access the utility by going to Start | Programs
| Accessories | System Tools.
WPA, short for Wi-Fi Protected Access, is a Wi-Fi standard
that was designed to improve upon the security features
of WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy). The technology is designed
to work with existing Wi-Fi products that have been enabled
86)You can access Computer Management screen through:
can access Computer Management screen through:
MyComputer on Desk Top -> Right Click -> Manage
2. Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools ->
One of the frequently used resource in "Computer Management"
screen is System Tools. System tools contain the following:
1. Event Viewer
2. System Information
4. Device Manager
5. Shared folders
Users and Groups
These are very useful tools to a system administrator.
You can access Task Manager by pressing <Alt> <Ctrl> <Del>.
The applications tab lists all the applications that are
currently running on the computer. The current status of
the application is also displayed as either "Running" or
"not responding" or "stopped".
You can change the boot sequence by entering CMOS setup.
87)You can configure support for multiple displays on
your Windows 2000 computer. This is done through the use
of Control Panel -> Display -> Settings. A Windows 2000
computer can support up to ten display monitors at the same
time. Use additional video cards as required.
You can enable hibernate on a Windows computer by right
clicking on the Desktop, the then selecting Properties.
You can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option
by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt,
after switching to the CD ROM drive letter.
You can not upgrade Windows 95 directly to Windows XP.
You first need to upgrade to Windows 98, and then upgrade
to Windows XP.
You can ping the loop back address at 127.0.0.1. A response
ensures that the TCP/IP stack is installed properly on your
You can select Reconnect at Logon for reconnecting to
a network drive at logon.
You can start the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard
by clicking Start on the computer running Windows XP, pointing
to All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, and then clicking
Files and Settings Transfer Wizard.
88)Windows 95/98, Windows NT 3.51Work Station, Windows
NT 4.0 WS can be upgraded to Windows 2000 Professional.
You can't upgrade Windows 3.1 and Windows for workgroups
to Windows 2000 Professional. If you need to install 2000
Prof. On Windows 3.x, you need to upgrade first to Windows
95/98 or NT and then upgrade to 2000 Prof. It is easy to
do a clean install of Windows 2000 on Windows 3.x machines.
You can use "Safely Remove Hardware" icon to unplug any
You can use Add/ Remove applet in the Control Panel to
add or remove a program.
You can use both Ping Localhost and Ping 127.0.0.1 to
see whether the TCP/IP stack is installed properly. Ipconfig
is used to obtain the TCP/IP configuration information,
such as the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway etc.
on the local computer.
You can use Regional Options to support additional languages
on your computer. With the support of additional languages,
you will be able to edit documents written in those languages.
You can also set locale specific to any region using this
You can use Start -> Windows Update to connect to the
Microsoft site. Windows Update is a catalog of items such
as drivers, patches, the latest help files, and Internet
products that you can download to keep your computer up
to date. You must be logged on as an administrator or a
member of the Administators group in order to access the
Product Updates section of Windows Update for downloading
You can use System Monitor as well as Task Manager to
monitor Processor and Memory usage on your computer.
You can use the View tab in Folder Options applet in
the Control Panel to show / hide files and folders that
have "Hidden" attribute set. You can also use Windows Explorer
-> Tools -> Folder Options -> View tab.
You can't apply file level permissions on a FAT file
system. Only NTFS allows file permissions. Remember that
the NTFS file permissions are always in effect to all users
You don't need to have a network card installed for successful
installation of Windows 2000 Professional. You can use loop
back adapter for this purpose and proceed with the installation.
Network card can be installed at a latter time, when required.
89)When upgrading an OS to Windows 2000/XP, ensure the
following before the upgrade:
1. The hardware is adequate for upgrading to Windows
2. Also, check the hardware, software adequacy by running
Winnt32.exe / checkupgradeonly. Note that the switch "checkupgradeonly"
will output a report on the adequacy of hardware and software.
It will also warn you if any applications need upgrade packs,
which may be obtained from respective application vendors,
if available. If the software upgrade pack is not installed
for any application, the application may be rendered unusable!
3. It is also recommended, if you are upgrading on a
large population, to upgrade only one work station, and
check whether the application softwares are running properly.
If you encounter any problem in using a USB port, ensure
that the USB interface is enabled in the BIOS. Note that
Windows 95, Windows NT4.0 (Upto service pack 4) do not support
USB. Also, make sure that the motherboard BIOS supports
You can use "Scanners and Cameras" to install device
drivers for a new scanner or a digital camera. You can also
set properties, remove a scanner or a camera using the "Scanners
and Cameras" applet in the Control Panel. Once the Camera
or Scanner is installed, you can use the Imaging application
to initiate the transfer of images from your scanner or
camera to your Windows 2000 computer. You can access the
Imaging application through Start -> Programs -> Accessories
90)The command Win32 / checkupgradeonly can be used to
get a report on hardware and software compatibility.
You want to install Windows 2000 on the same partition
as that of Windows 98. Windows 98 supports FAT (FAT16) and
FAT32. It doesn't support NTFS file system. Therefore, you
need to install 2000 Professional either on the FAT file
systems or on the FAT32 for dual boot.
UPS usually contain a filter to smoothen the noise, and
this filter is called noise filter.