CompTIA® A+ It Technician Exam Cram Notes : Post Errors, Volume Types, Registry Editor And Computer Management.

72)Upgrading the firmware in a computer is done by flashing the BIOS.

73)USB devices are hot pluggable. There is no need to reboot the computer. If the drive files for the USB device is available already with the operating system, the system will automatically load the drivers for the device. Otherwise, the driver files need to be provided separately

74)Usually, you need to consult the manufacturer's documentation to verify which components are hot-swappable. Therefore, it is recommended to refer the documentation, and if the power supply is hot-swappable, there is no need to switch off the server computer, thus preventing any inconvenience to the users.

75)Various POST (Power On Self Test) error codes and their description is as below:

Code 01: Undetermined problem
Code 02: Power Supply error
Code 1xx: System board errors
Code 2xx: Memory (RAM) errors
Code 3xx: Keyboard errors
Code 6xx: Diskette Drive errors
x is any single digit integer.

76)When a printer is installed on a network, default printer permissions are assigned that allow all users to print. Because the printer is available to all users on the network, you might want to limit access for some users by assigning specific printer permissions. For example, you could give all non-executive users in a department the Print permission and give all managers the Print and Manage Documents permissions. You can also deny print permission to all others. In this way, all non-executive users and managers can print documents, but managers can also change the print status of any document sent to the printer.

When attending to the computer maintenance or repair (other than the monitor), ensure that you work in a static free environment. Always wear wrist strap. You should not wear clothes/shoes that produce static charges.

When working on computers, use special ESD wrist strap. Do not directly ground yourself with a piece of wire. An ESD wrist strap has built-in resistor to prevent electric shock. Use specially designed grounded ESD mats. Do not wear synthetic clothing. Place all electronic components into anti static bags. Anti static bags can be reused. Keep your workplace clean.

77)When you have two hard disk drives, the following two combinations are possible:

1. Install the drives one each on primary and secondary controllers and designate both as Masters.
2. Install both the drives on the primary controller and designate one as Master and the other as Slave.

When you install Windows 2000 in the same folder as that of Windows 95/ Windows 98/ Windows NT, the operating system gets upgraded to Windows 2000.

When you upgrade to Windows 2000, you need to ensure that you have software upgrade packs available. It is very much possible that an application that was working properly may not work the same way after the upgrade of OS. You need to contact the vendor for upgrade pack for any application(s) you are using. If the upgrade packs are not available, and the application is critical, you may need to reconsider the upgradation of OS.

While doing any hardware up gradation on a laptop (such as adding more memory, etc), remember to remove the battery in addition to unplugging of AC mains.

78)Windows 2000 Operating systems support 5 different volume types:

6. Simple volumes
7. Spanned volumes
8. Striped volumes
9. Mirrored volumes
10. RAID-5 volumes

A simple volume consists of a formatted disk on a single hard disk.

A Spanned volume consists of disk space on more than one hard disk.

A Striped volume has disk space on 2 or more disks. The disk spaces must be same on all disks. Fastest disk access among all volume types. RAID level 0.

A mirrored volume consists of Simple volume that is mirrored in total, onto a second dynamic disk. Provides highest level of fault tolerance. RAID level 1

A RAID-5 volume consists of identical sized disk space located on three or more dynamic disks. Here any single disk failures can be recovered. RAID level 5

Note that Windows 2000 Professional doesn't support Disk Mirroring, RAID-5 volumes, where as other Windows 2000 Operating Systems (2000 Server, Advanced Server) support.

79)Windows 2000 provides two versions of Registry Editor

1. Regedt32.exe (32-bit) and
2. Regedit.exe (16-bit).

Regedt32.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot\system32 folder, while Regedit.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot folder. Regedit.exe is primarily used for its search capabilities as it doesn't support all functions and data types.

Windows XP/2000 has a backup utility that can be used to backup or restore files and folders. In Windows 2000, you can access the utility by going to Start | Programs | Accessories | System Tools.

Windows XP/2000 provides three levels of printing security permissions: Print, Manage Printers, and Manage Documents. When multiple permissions are assigned to a group of users, the least restrictive permissions apply. However, when Deny is applied, it takes precedence over any other permission.

Print: The user can connect and print document. By default, the Print permission is assigned to all members of the Everyone group.

Manage Printers: The user has complete administrative control of the printer. The user can pause and restart the printer, change spooler settings, share a printer, change printer permissions, and change printer properties. By default, the Manage Printers permission is assigned to members of the Administrators and Power Users groups.

Manage Documents: The user can pause, resume, restart, cancel, and rearrange the order of documents submitted by all other users. The user cannot, however, send documents to the printer or control the status of the printer. By default, the Manage Documents permission is assigned to members of the Creator Owner group.

80)You can access Computer Management screen through:

1. MyComputer on Desk Top -> Right Click -> Manage
2. Start -> Programs -> Administrative Tools -> Computer Management

One of the frequently used resource in "Computer Management" screen is System Tools. System tools contain the following:

1. Event Viewer
2. System Information
3. Performance logs
4. Device Manager
5. Shared folders
6. Local Users and Groups

These are very useful tools to a system administrator.

81)You can access Task Manager by pressing <Alt> <Ctrl> <Del>. The applications tab lists all the applications that are currently running on the computer. The current status of the application is also displayed as either "Running" or "not responding" or "stopped".

You can enable memory dump to a file when your system is about to crash due to Stop Error (such as Blue Screen)

The following types of memory dumps are available with Windows XP/2000:

  • Complete memory dump
  • Kernel memory dump
  • Small memory dump (64 KB)

You can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching to the CD ROM drive letter.

You can ping the loop back address at A response ensures that the TCP/IP stact is installed properly on your computer.

82)You can run a non Windows application in Windows 95 by

1. Creating a short cut to the DOS application
2. Use RUN command in the Start menu to launch the application
3. Browse to the DOS executable and double click on it.

You can enable hibernate on a Windows computer by right clicking on the Desktop, the then selecting Properties.

You can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching to the CD ROM drive letter.

You can not upgrade Windows 95 directly to Windows XP. You first need to upgrade to Windows 98, and then upgrade to Windows XP.

You can ping the loop back address at A response ensures that the TCP/IP stack is installed properly on your computer.

You can select Reconnect at Logon for reconnecting to a network drive at logon.

You can start the Files and Settings Transfer Wizard by clicking Start on the computer running Windows XP, pointing to All Programs, Accessories, System Tools, and then clicking Files and Settings Transfer Wizard.

88)Windows 95/98, Windows NT 3.51Work Station, Windows NT 4.0 WS can be upgraded to Windows 2000 Professional. You can't upgrade Windows 3.1 and Windows for workgroups to Windows 2000 Professional. If you need to install 2000 Prof. On Windows 3.x, you need to upgrade first to Windows 95/98 or NT and then upgrade to 2000 Prof. It is easy to do a clean install of Windows 2000 on Windows 3.x machines.

You can use "Safely Remove Hardware" icon to unplug any USB device.

You can use Add/ Remove applet in the Control Panel to add or remove a program.

You can use both Ping Localhost and Ping to see whether the TCP/IP stack is installed properly. Ipconfig is used to obtain the TCP/IP configuration information, such as the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway etc. on the local computer.

You can use Regional Options to support additional languages on your computer. With the support of additional languages, you will be able to edit documents written in those languages. You can also set locale specific to any region using this Option.

You can use Start -> Windows Update to connect to the Microsoft site. Windows Update is a catalog of items such as drivers, patches, the latest help files, and Internet products that you can download to keep your computer up to date. You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administators group in order to access the Product Updates section of Windows Update for downloading help files.

You can use System Monitor as well as Task Manager to monitor Processor and Memory usage on your computer.

You can use the View tab in Folder Options applet in the Control Panel to show / hide files and folders that have "Hidden" attribute set. You can also use Windows Explorer -> Tools -> Folder Options -> View tab.

You can't apply file level permissions on a FAT file system. Only NTFS allows file permissions. Remember that the NTFS file permissions are always in effect to all users and processes.

You don't need to have a network card installed for successful installation of Windows 2000 Professional. You can use loop back adapter for this purpose and proceed with the installation. Network card can be installed at a latter time, when required.

83)You need to ensure the following before the upgrade:

1. The hardware is adequate for upgrading to Windows 2000 Professional
2. Also, check the hardware, software adequacy by running Winnt32.exe / checkupgradeonly. Note that the switch "checkupgradeonly" will output a report on the adequacy of hardware and software. It will also warn you if any applications need upgrade packs, which may be obtained from respective application vendors, if available. If the software upgrade pack is not installed for any application, the application may be rendered unusable!
3. It is also recommended, if you are upgrading on a large population, to upgrade only one work station, and check whether the application softwares are running properly.

You need to make sure that the USB interface is enabled in the BIOS. Note that Windows 95, Windows NT4.0 (Upto service pack 4) do not support USB. Also, make sure that the motherboard BIOS supports USB.

84)You need to memorize the following port addresses before attending the exam.

Port Base address (in hex)
COM4: 2E8-2EF
COM2: 2F8-2FF
COM3: 3E8-3EF
COM1: 3F8-3FF
LPT2 : 278-27F
LPT1 : 378-37F

Floppy Controller: 3F0-3F7
Hard Drive Controller, 16 bit, ISA: 1F0-1F8
Monochrome Graphic Adapter: 3B0-3BF
Color Graphic Adapter: 3D0-3DF

85)You need to right click on the short-cut, select properties. Then, select short-cut tab. You can select change icon, to change the icon.

You need to take the customer in to confidence, and apologize to him/her for having lost some important files/folders.

You should not give away your login information to anybody over email. Usually, such emails are not genuine, and intended for malicious use.

You use Disk Defragmenter to analyze and defragment disk volumes.

You use Scanners and Cameras to install device drivers for a new scanner or a digital camera. You can also set properties, remove a scanner or a camera using the "Scanners and Cameras" applet in the Control Panel. Once the Camera or Scanner is installed, you can use the Imaging application to initiate the transfer of images from your scanner or camera to your Windows 2000 computer. You can access the Imaging application through Start -> Programs -> Accessories -> Imaging.

86)You use the command Win32 / checkupgradeonly can be used to get a report on hardware and software compatibility.

You want to install Windows 2000 on the same partition as that of Windows 98. Windows 98 supports FAT (FAT16) and FAT32. It doesn't support NTFS file system. Therefore, you need to install 2000 Professional either on the FAT file systems or on the FAT32 for dual boot.