Handles incidents, escalates incidents to problem
management staff, manages service requests and answers
Provides an interface for other activities such
as customer change requests, maintenance contracts,
software licenses, SLM, service asset and configuration
management, availability management, financial management
for IT services, and IT service continuity management.
B) Objectives of Service desk function
Logging all relevant incident/service request
details, and allocating categorization and prioritization
Providing first line investigation and diagnosis.
Resolving those incidents/service requests that
do not need escalating across IT.
Escalating incidents/service requests that the
service desk cannot resolve within agreed timescales.
Closing all resolved incidents, service requests
and other calls.
Conducting customer/user satisfaction call backs/surveys
Communication with users - keeping them informed
of incident progress, notifying them of impending
changes or agreed outages, etc.
Updating the configuration management system
under the direction and approval of configuration
management if so agreed
C) Organizational structures of Service desk function
Local Service Desk - co-located with users in
the office, efficient but expensive, need more coordination
among different service desks within the organization.
Centralized Service Desk - economy of scale,
better coordination, knowledge and mind sharing,
no direct physical interaction with users.
Virtual Service Desk - physically separated
service desks linked together with a common system
to log issues and communications, allocation of
calls based on workload.
Follow the Sun - similar to virtual service
desk, allocation of calls based on time of day for
24-hour support, great for global organization.
Specialized Service Desk Groups - need to specify
the type of incidents on the user side to reach
the support staff to allow faster resolution
8.2 The Technical Management
A) Role of Technical management function
Manage the IT infrastructure.
Provide enough skilled supporting staff for
the whole lifecycle from strategy to operation and
Guide and support operations staff members
B) Objectives of Technical management function
Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective
Use of technical skills to maintain the technical
infrastructure in optimum condition.
Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose
and resolve any technical failures
8.3 Application Management
A) Role of Application management function
Manage the IT applications
Ensures that the knowledge required to design,
test, manage and improve IT services is identified,
developed and refined.
Carry out training needs analysis and provide
the training to technical and operation staff
B) Objectives of Application management function
Identify requirements for applications (utility
Design, assist in deployment and support applications.
Identify and implement improvements
C) Differences between application management function
and application development
Application development is concerned with the
one-time set of activities to design and construct
application solutions. Whereas, application management
function is concerned about the lifetime of the
Application development focuses only on utility.
Whereas, application management function focuses
on both utility and warranty.
Application development focuses on software
development. Whereas, application management function
focuses on operation and improvement.
In application development staff is typically
rewarded for creativity and for completing one project
so that they can move on to the next project. Whereas,
in application management staff are typically rewarded
for consistency and for preventing unexpected events
and unauthorized functionality.
In application development, most development
work is done in projects where the focus is on delivering
specific units of work to specification, on time
and within budget. Whereas, in application management
most work is done as part of repeatable, ongoing
Management is needed for applications developed
8.4 The IT Operations
A) Role of IT operations management function
Carry out day-to-day activities for the delivery
of the services to ensure SLA is met - i.e. provide
quality service in an efficient and cost effective
Technical and Application Management Functions
define the activities to be carried out by Operations
B) Objectives of IT operations management function
Responsible for the day to day running of the
As per performance standards created in service
Maintaining the "status quo" to achieve infrastructure
Identifying opportunities to improve operational
performance and save costs.
Initial diagnosis and resolution of operational
C) IT operations Control : IT operations control
oversees execution and monitoring of operational activities
and events in the IT infrastructure with the help of
an operations bridge or network operations center.
D) Facilities Management : Facilities management
refers to the management of the physical IT environment,
typically a data center or computer rooms and recovery
sites together with all the power and cooling equipment.
Facilities management also includes the coordination
of large-scale consolidation projects, e.g. data center
consolidation or server consolidation projects.
9.1 Process owner
A) Role of Process owner
The process owner role is accountable for ensuring
that a process is fit for purpose.
The process owner role is accountable for ensuring
that their process is performed according to the
agreed and documented standard and meets the aims
of the process definition.
B) Responsibilities of Process owner
Ensure the process works efficiently and effectively.
Develop the process strategy, policies and standards.
Design the process and improve its design, document
Design the metrics to be collected and monitor
Ensure the availability of resources and capabilities
to carry out the process.
Responsible for the consistency of the process
9.2 Process manager
A) Role of Process manager
The process manager role is accountable for
operational management of a process.
The process manager role is often assigned to
the person who carries out the process owner role,
but the two roles may be separate in larger organizations.
B) Responsibilities of Process manager
Working with the process owner to plan and coordinate
all process activities.
Ensuring that all activities are carried out
as required throughout the service lifecycle.
Appointing people to the required roles.
Managing resources assigned to the process.
Working with service owners and other process
managers to ensure the smooth running of services.
Monitoring and reporting on process performance.
Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion
in the CSI register.
Working with the CSI manager and process owner
to review and prioritize improvements in the CSI
Making improvements to the process implementation.
9.3 Process practitioner
A) Role of Process practitioner
Process practitioner is responsible for carrying
out one or more process activities under the guidance
of process manager.
For some process, process practitioner role
may be combined with process manager role.
B) Responsibilities of Process practitioner
Understand and complete the process activities.
Work with process stakeholders to ensure correctness.
Produce records of the process activities.
9.4 Service owner
A) Role of Service owner
The service owner is accountable for the delivery
of a specific IT service.
Service owner is accountable for delivering
the service across all process areas in an effective
and efficient manner.
Accountable to the IT director or service management
director for the delivery of the service
B) Responsibilities of Service owner
Service owner represents the service.
Work with all IT groups and process owners to
deliver, support and improve the service to the
required standards according to business objectives.
Work with customers to understand the requirements,
raise RFC and solve issues.
Soliciting required data, statistics and reports
for analysis and to facilitate effective service
monitoring and performance.
Study impacts on the service by changes in other
services / environments.
Maintain the service catalogue entry.
Ensure the process conforms to all policies
As a primary stakeholder in all the processes
involved with the service
9.5 RACI model
A) Acronym of RACI : RACI is an acronym for the four
main roles of being:
Responsible: The person or people responsible
for correct execution - for getting the job done
Accountable the person who has ownership of
quality and the end result. Only one person can
be accountable for each task.
Consulted the people who are consulted and whose
opinions are sought. They have involvement through
input of knowledge and information.
Informed the people who are kept up to date
on progress. They receive information about process
execution and quality.
B) RACI model- typical steps to create RACI matrix
Identify the processes/activities.
Identify and define the roles
Conduct meetings and assign the RACI codes
Identify any gaps or overlaps. E.g., Multiple
R's or no R's
Distribute the chart and incorporate feedback
Ensure that the allocations are being followed
Typical example of a RACI Matrix is as shown below:
a) Left column in the matrix represents: activities,
b) Top row in the matrix represents: functional roles
responsible for process or service.
c) Cells in the matrix represents: RACI assignments
Figure: An example of a RACI matrix
10. Technology and Architecture
10.1 Role of automation
1) The capacity of automated resources can be more
easily adjusted in response to variations in demand
2) Automated resources can handle capacity with fewer
restrictions on time of access, they can therefore be
used to serve demand across time zones and after-hours.
3) Automated systems present a good basis for measuring
and improving service processes by holding constant
the factor of human resources; conversely, they can
be used to measure the differential impact on service
quality and costs due to varying levels of knowledge,
skills and experience of human resources.
4) Many optimization problems such as scheduling,
routing and allocation of resources require computing
power that is beyond the capacity of human agents.
5) Automation is a means for capturing the knowledge
required for a service process, codified knowledge is
relatively easy to distribute in the organization in
a consistent and secure manner. It reduces the depreciation
of knowledge when employees move within the organization
or permanently leave
Disclaimer: examguides.com is neither
associated nor affiliated with AXELOS Limited® or any
other company. ITIL is trademarks of AXELOS Limited®
and duly acknowledged. The Exam Cram notes material is a copyright of
examguides.com and the same is not approved or endorsed by respective