Foundations Exam Notes
Internet Fundamentals: 24 items
Web Page Authoring Fundamentals: 12 items
Networking Fundamentals: 24 items
Total scored items: 60
In addition, there will be 10 randomly delivered
beta items throughout the exam. These beta items are not
1. Internetwork IP addressing:
IP addresses are written using decimal numbers separated by
decimal points. This is called dotted decimal notation
of expressing IP addresses.
The different classes of IP addresses is as below:
- Network address of all zeros means "This network or
- Network address of all 1s means " all
networks", same as hexadecimal of all Fs.
- Network number 127 is reserved for loop-back tests.
- Host (Node) address of all zeros mean "This Host
Host (Node) address of all 1s mean "all Hosts (Nodes)
" on the specified network.
The range of numbers from 188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206 is
used for multicast packets. This is known as Class D
The default subnet mask for
Class A network: 255.0.0.0
Class B network: 255.255.0.0
Class C network: 255.255.255.0
2. The range of numbers from 220.127.116.11 to 18.104.22.168
is used for multicast packets. This is known as Class D
Telnet, FTP, and TFTP:
TCP/IP is the protocol used when you are Telnetting to a
remote host. Telnet is used for terminal emulation that
runs programs remotely.
FTP is used to transfer files. FTP is a connection-oriented
protocol. It uses TCP/IP for file transfer.
TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) uses UDP. TFTP is a
A valid IP address on a host / node can't start with
127; 127.X.X.X is reserved for local loop back. A valid
IP address can't be larger than 255 (in any octet), The
maximum allowed value is 255 in any or combination of
octets. For example, 150.206.256.31 is an invalid IP,
since one octet exceeded the value 255. An example of
valid IP is 22.214.171.124.
5. The number of distinct IP's required in a network are
One each per client computer
One each per server computer
One each per router interface.
example, if there are 2 servers, 26 clients machines,
and 2 router interfaces, the total number of IP
addresses required are 30.
OSI 7 layers: The 7 layers of OSI model are:
The Application Layer:
Application layer is responsible for identifying and
establishing the availability of intended communication
partner and verifying sufficient resources exist for
communication. Some of the important application layer
protocols are: WWW, SMTP, FTP, etc.
Layer: This layer is responsible for presenting the data
in standard formats. This layer is responsible for data
compression, decompression, encryption, and decryption.
Some Presentation Layer standards are: JPEG, MPEG, MIDI,
PICT, Quick Time, TIFF.
The Session Layer:
Session Layer is responsible for co-coordinating
communication between systems/nodes. The following are some of the session layer protocols and
interfaces: a) Network File System (NFS), SQL, RPC
(Remote Procedure Call), X-Windows, ASP, DNA SCP.
The Transport Layer:
The Transport Layer is responsible for multiplexing
upper-layer applications, session establishment, and
tearing-down of virtual circuits. This layer does
"flow control" to maintain data integrity.
Flow Control prevents the problem of a sending host on
one side of the connection overflowing the buffers in
the receiving host.
The Network Layer:
There can be several paths to send a packet from a given
source to a destination. The primary responsibility of
Network layer is to send packets from the source network
to the destination network using pre-determined methods.
Routers work at Network layer.
The Data Link Layer:
Data Link Layer is
layer 2 of OSI reference model. This layer is divided
into two sub-layers:
Logical Link Control (LLC)
Media Access Control
The LLC sub-layer
handles error control, flow control, framing, and MAC
The MAC sub-layer is
the lower of the two sub-layers of the Data Link layer.
MAC sub-layer handles access to shared media, such a
Token passing or Ethernet.
Physical Layer: The
actual flow of bits takes place through Physical layer.
At Physical layer, the interface between the DTE and DCE
is determined. The following are some of the standard
interfaces are defined at Physical layer: A> EIA/TIA-232,
EIA/TIA-449, V.24, V.35, X.21, G.703, HSSI (High Speed
HTTP is the protocol used for accessing the World Wide
Web (WWW) services. HTTP operates over TCP/IP. TCP/IP is
the protocol, which is used by all Internet applications
such as WWW, FTP, and Telnet etc.
IPX/SPX is proprietary protocol stack of Novell
This utility displays current NetBIOS over TCP/IP
connections, and display NetBIOS name cache.
Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP
connections since the server was last booted.
This command is used to determine which route a
packet takes to reach its destination from source.
Displays Windows IP configuration information.
This utility enables users to interact with a DNS
server and display resource records.
This command can be used to display and edit
static routing tables.
Important port numbers:
port numbers used by different programs are as below:
port numbers used by different programs are as below:
FTP: Port #21
Telnet: Port #23
SMTP: Port #25
SNMP: Port #161
is also important to know that FTP, Telnet, SMTP use
TCP; whereas TFTP, SNMP use UDP.
Some of the important commands useful in trouble
shooting TCP/IP networks:
TCP/IP configuration values, including IP address,
subnet mask, and default gateway.
Ping: This command can
be used to verify whether the target ip address or host
name is present. You need to specify the target IP
address or host name.
Displays and manipulates route information.
the route packets take to reach the specified
uses existing copper phone lines. The access speeds can
be up to 9 MBPS. but has distance limitations and
available in only certain exchange areas.
are several categories of DSL:
DSL (ADSL): Here data flow is asymmetric. Data flow in
one direction is different from that in the other
DSL (SDSL): Here the data flow is symmetric, that the
data flows equally in both directions.
not so much used or known types of DSL are BDSL, HDSL,
ISDN specifies two
standard access methods:
BRI (Basic Rate
Consists of two B
channels (64Kbps) and one D channel (16Kbps).
The B channels can be
used for digitized speech transmission or for relatively
high-speed data transport.
The D channel carries
signaling information (call setup) to control calls on B
PRI (Primary Rate
Consists of 23 B
channels and one D channel
with a bandwidth of 1.544Mbps.
PRI uses a DSU/CSU for
a T1 connection. B stands for Bearer Channel.
13. Tracert, Ping use ICMP as their base protocol. ICMP
messages are carried in IP data grams.
14. SMTP is used to upload mail to the mail server. POP3 is
used for downloading mail from a mail server to a client
machine running POP3 client.
A DNS zone file contains the resource records for the
part of the domain for which the zone is responsible.
Some of the resource records are:
SOA (Start Of
Authority Record): The first record in any zone file is
the SOA record. The SOA file contains some general
parameters such as contact e-mail of the person
responsible for this zone file, the host on which zone
file is maintained etc.
The NS Record (Name
Server Record): NS
Record contains the name servers for this domain. This
will enable other name servers to look up names in your
MX Record (Mail
Exchange Record): MX record tells us which host
processes mail for this domain.
Host Record (A
Record): A host record is used to statically associate
hosts names to IP addresses within a zone. The syntax
for this is
<hostname> IN A
<ip address of the host>
IN A 126.96.36.199
Here 'NameServer1' is
the host name and 188.8.131.52 is its ip address.
(Canonical name): These records allow you to use more
than one name to point to a single Host. Using CNAME,
you can host both WWW and FTP servers on the same
Reverse Look up is
useful when you want to implement security. Reverse look
up ensures that the domain name is indeed the domain
that it claims to be.
correct format for Pointer record is
reverse domain name> IN PTR <host name>
184.108.40.206.in-addr.arpa. IN PTR
the IP numbers are written in backward order and in-addr.arpa
is appended to the end, creating a Pointer record.
browser not to show pictures enable the Web pages to
A correctly formatted
connection to access a Web site over a secure link will
By installing Internet
News service, you can enable all group members to
exchange threaded messages.
NNTP is a service.
Users can connect to NNTP service using client software
like Microsoft Internet Mail and News through TCP/IP.
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a reduced version of
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