I-Net+ Exam Notes I-Net+Certification awarded by CompTIA organization is a widely recognized certification in the area of Internetwoking technologies. To attain I-Net+ certification, one need to score at least 73%, and there will be around 72 questions. The duration of the exam is 90 minutes. These exams basically test the Knowledge of Networking Technology and Knowledge of Networking Practices. The exam consists of 65 questions and a maximum allowable time of 90 minutes. For further details, you can visit the official website here.
Once you pass I-Net+, a reasonable familiarity can be expected in the areas of Internet Basics, Internet Clients, Web development, Networking, Security, and business concepts. Some areas, such as TCP/IP model, Address resolution, and networking protocols, and other important basic concepts are covered in both network+ and I-Net+.
1. Internetwork IP addressing:
IP addresses are written using decimal numbers separated by decimal points. This is called dotted decimal notation of expressing IP addresses.
The different classes of IP addresses is as below:
|Class||Format||Leading Bit pattern||Network address Range||Maximum networks||Maximum hosts/ nodes|
N: Network address part
H: Host address part
Network address of all zeros means "This network or segment".
Network address of all 1s means " all networks", same as hexadecimal of all Fs.
Network number 127 is reserved for loop-back tests.
Host (Node) address of all zeros mean "This Host (Node)".
Host (Node) address of all 1s mean "all Hosts (Nodes) " on the specified network.
The range of numbers from 18.104.22.168 to 22.214.171.124 is used for multicast packets. This is known as Class D address range.
The default subnet mask for
2. TCP/IP protocol suite was initially developed based on Unix operating system and it is native to Unix. TCP/IP protocol suite was added to other operating systems like Windows later.
3. ATM:ATM, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, uses 53 byte cells for all transmissions All cells are 53 byte long and consist of a 5 byte header and 48 bytes of data.
4. T1,T2, and T3 connections:
The speeds of the Tx connections are as given below:
5. DSL:DSL uses existing copper phone lines. The access speeds can be up to 9 MBPS. but has distance limitations and available in only certain exchange areas.
There are several categories of DSL:
6. The range of numbers from 126.96.36.199 to 188.8.131.52 is used for multicast packets. This is known as Class D address range.
7. Telnet, FTP, and TFTP:
8. A valid IP address on a host / node can't start with 127; 127.X.X.X is reserved for local loop back. A valid IP address can't be larger than 255 (in any octet), The maximum allowed value is 255 in any or combination of octets. For example, 150.206.256.31 is an invalid IP, since one octet exceeded the value 255. An example of valid IP is 184.108.40.206.
9. Tracert, Ping use ICMP as their base protocol. ICMP messages are carried in IP data grams.
10. SMTP is used to upload mail to the mail server. POP3 is used for downloading mail from a mail server to a client machine running POP3 client.
11. A firewall is a security mechanism, which prevents unauthorized access to a network or a resource on a network.
12. Important port numbers:
The port numbers used by different programs are as below:
It is also important to know that FTP, Telnet, SMTP use TCP; whereas TFTP, SNMP use UDP.
13. Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers:
14. Gateway is used to translate protocols, as it works at application layer.
15. Telnet requires an username and password to access.
16. ISDN:ISDN specifies two standard access methods:
BRI (Basic Rate Interface):
PRI (Primary Rate Interface):
17. TCP/IP port assignments used in the Internet: Originating source port numbers are dynamically assigned by source host, and usually greater than 1023. The following are the recommended port numbers:
18. Some of the important commands useful in trouble shooting TCP/IP networks:
19. HTTP is the protocol used for accessing the World Wide Web services. HTTP operates over TCP/IP. TCP/IP is the protocol, which is used by all internet applications such as WWW, FTP, Telnet etc. IPX/SPX is proprietary protocol stack of Novell NetWare.
20. TCP is a full-duplex, connection-oriented protocol. It incorporates error checking as well. UDP (User Data gram Protocol): UDP is a thin protocol. UDP is a connectionless protocol. It doesn't contact the destination before sending the packet and doesn't care whether the packet is reached at the destination. UDP uses port number 6.
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