36)If you do not know the voltage across any two points,
set the voltage range in the voltmeter to the largest possible
number and reduce gradually.
If you fail to boot, first try to boot in Safe Mode.
If it doesn't work, try booting to Last Known Good Configuration.
If both fail, you can try using Recovery Console.
37)If you have a standard desktop PC that uses integrated
drive electronics (IDE) disk drives, then these will be
detected during setup. If, however, you use SCSI disks or
have Redundant Array of Independent Disk (RAID) storage
systems, you will see, shortly after the reboot, the following
line of text displayed at the bottom of the screen:
"Press F6 if you need to install a third party SCSI or
Pressing F6 will start a dialog that allows you to configure
and install the drivers for your SCSI or other disk subsystem
controllers. This option is usually used on server platforms
that use large-capacity, high-speed, fault-tolerant disk
subsystems. For most PCs, however, you won't need to use
38)If you notice that the time is constantly incorrect,
even after adjusting correctly, the most likely cause is
that the CMOS battery has become weak and need to be replaced.
If you want to format a drive and also make it bootable,
you need to format with /s switch. By issuing this command,
the boot files IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, COMMAND.COM get copied
to the disk.
If your Microsoft Windows XP-based computer does not
start correctly or if it does not start at all, you can
use the Windows Recovery Console to help you recover your
Automated System Recovery (ASR) is a part of an overall
plan for system recovery so that you are prepared if the
system fails. ASR should be a last resort for system recovery.
Use ASR only after you have exhausted other options. It
is recommended that you use ASR only if all other options
to repair the system (such as Last Known Good, and Safe
Boot) have failed.
39)Impact printers are capable of printing multipart
forms, since they can give necessary impression to print
to multiple forms simultaneously.
In an EP process:
1. The transfer corona has positive charge
2. The primary corona has negative charge
3. The toner will have negative charge
InkJet is the generic name given for contactless printing
using ink. BubbleJet and DeskJet are the names of Cannon
and HP InkJet printers respectively.
Internet is based on TCP/IP protocol. TCP/IP is the medium
of transport when your are accessing the Internet.
IPCONFIG gives the current IP address asigned to the
Windows 2000 computer.
ipconfig/all provides the MAC address of your computer.
40)IsoPropyl Alcohol (IPA) is recommended for cleaning
PCAs such as motherboards. Mild detergent can be used for
cleaning the outside cabinet or the keyboard.
It is important that you consult manufacturer's documentation
before starting any preventive maintenance or cleaning operation.
Usually, manufacturers provide proper cleaning methods and
the solvents / tools to be used for this purpose.
It is important that you do not make the issue personal.
Maintain professional approach, and try to resolve the problem
for which you had been called.
It is important to know that ESD damage may not be known
immediately. A component may only suffer degradation in
performance, which may show up only at a later date. In
some cases, an ESD may result in the failure of the component
It is important to know that the ends of a SCSI chain
need to be terminated. There are 3 configurations possible:
1. The SCSI host adapter and only internal SCSI devices
2. The SCSI host adapter and only external SCSI devices
3. The SCSI host adapter and both internal and external
devices on the same SCSI segment.
In case 1, and case 2 the SCSI host adapter and the extreme
end device need to be terminated. In case 3, the SCSI adapter
usually sits some where in between the internal and external
devices, and hence should not be terminated. Only the end
devices (i.e. one at the end of the internal SCSI segment,
and one at the end of the external SCSI segment) need to
be terminated. Note that the devices that are not at the
extreme ends of the SCSI chain should not be terminated.
For any given SCSI segment, only two devices (that are at
the ends) should be terminated.
41)It is recommended that the backup tape is stored at
a location away from the building where the backup was taken.
For most companies, backups contain important data and loosing
backups may affect the continuity of one's business. If
a backup is stored in the same building, it may get damaged
in fire or any other natural calamities along with the computers.
As a result, both the server, as well as back fail at the
same time. Therefore, it is recommended to store the backup
at a different location.
It is very important that you verify that the backup
is working properly. It may so happen that you have several
backup tapes, but none of them is good!
42)It is recommended that you clean the LCD screen with
clean water, using a soft cotton cloth. Do not spray water
directly on the screen. First wet the cloth (no dripping
of water), and wipe the LCD screen gently.
Key boards come with two types of connectors. They are:
4. Mini DIN-6
DIN-5 are used with AT style keyboards. DIN-5 has 5 pins.
Mini DIN-6, also known as PS/2 connector has a round port
with 6 pins, one of which being a square pin used for alignment.
LAN: Local Area Network
WAN: Wide Area Network
MAN: Metropolitan Area Network
Laptop batteries (and most other batteries) consist of
hazardous material. You need to dispose them according to
the hazardous material disposal procedures. Enquire local
authorities about disposal procedure.
43)Level 1 cache is internal to the processor, and level
2 cache is external to the processor, it resides on the
motherboard. In case of Pentium II, L2 cache is built into
Liquid Crystal Technology is most commonly used for laptop
Low level formatting will erase the data on a hard drive
MAC limiting the MAC addresses that can access the wireless
network, you can prevent unauthorized computers from accessing
your wireless network. Note that each MAC address is unique,
and hence MAC address filtering can effectively prevent
unauthorized computer access.
Machines running Windows 9X can be grouped together to
share network resources. This type of network is called
peer-to-peer network. The name comes from the fact that
all the computers on the network are considered as equal
partners or peers.
Microsoft Internet Explorer and Windows Explorer can
be used for assigning Share and NTFS permissions on a Windows
44)Most Baby-AT type motherboards were manufactured until
1998. ATX motherboards have the processor at the rear end
of the motherboard and out of the way of expansion cards
(unlike AT / Baby AT boards). In addition, ATX form integrates
the serial and parallel ports on the motherboard.
Most commonly, the devices that support SCSI include
1. Hard drives
2. Tape drives
3. CD ROM drives
MSDS stands for Material Safety Data Sheet. It is US
state department document that contain information on any
substance that is hazardous, and proper use / disposal.
45)NBTSTAT This utility displays current NetBIOS over
TCP/IP connections, and display NetBIOS name cache.
NETSTAT Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP
connections since the server was last booted.
TRACERT Used to determine which route a packet takes
to reach its destination from source.
IPCONFIG Used to display Windows IP configuration information.
NSLOOKUP This utility enables users to interact with
a DNS server and display resource records.
ROUTE Used to display and edit static routing tables.
NETSTAT is used to review all inbound / outbound TCP/IP
WINS server resolves the NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
The network need to be configured with WINS (or LMHOSTS
file on each computer) for NetBIOS name resolution.
Never try to open the high voltage power supply in the
field. It contain dangerous voltages and some times fatal.
Replacing the power supply with a good one and sending the
faulty one to the service center is appropriate.
46)NIC, Network Interface Card is the one that interfaces
your PC to the LAN. NIC sits in your PC on one of the slot
available on the motherboard.
Nickel Cadmium battery is not environmentally friendly
and not as efficient as Nickel/Metalhydride or Lithium Ion.
Nickel/Metal hydride, though environmentally friendly, not
as efficient as Lithium Ion. Lithium Ion battery is environmentally
friendly and very efficient.
Normally, desktop processors consume higher power compared
to laptop processors. Laptop processors are optimized for
lesser power consumption, so that the heap produced is also
less. This is to take care of poor ventilation conditions
in a laptop computer.
Normally, PATA (Parallel ATA) is used for connecting
a hard disk in a notebook computer.
Normally, the printer supplier provides a driver that
goes with the XP OS. It is always preferable to use the
driver supplied by the device manufacturer along with the
Note that if you want to make a multi boot system, Windows
NT is not compatible with FAT32 file system. Windows 2000
supports FAT16/FAT32 and NTFS. Windows 95/ 98 does not support
NTFS file system
NTFS 5 supports file encryption, where as NTFS 4 doesn't.
You can upgrade NTFS 4 to NTFS 5 on Windows NT 4.0 computer
by installing Service Pack 4 or later.
NTFS file system allows assigning of security permissions
at file level and/or folder level.
47)NTLDR is responsible for switching Windows XP/2000
operating system from real mode to protected memory mode
Often manufacturers recommend using a pencil eraser to
clean the connectors.Cotton swab dipped in IPA can also
be used effectively.
Recommended cleaning procedures for various components
are as below:
Computer Cabinet: Use mild detergent
the computer: Use compressed air
Tape drive: Use tape
drive cleaning catridge
Floppy drive: Use floppy drive
CD ROM drive: Use CD-ROM drive cleaning
Mouse: Use cotton swab with Isopropyl Alcohol.
Only Windows NT Server 4 and Windows NT Server 3.51 can
be upgraded to Windows 2000 Server. Windows NT Workstation
4.0 or Windows 95/98 cann't upgraded to 2000 Server.
48)PAP uses 2-way handshaking. Passwords are sent in
clear text across the link. Therefore, PAP is to be used
only when it not possible to use CHAP.
CHAP uses 3-way handshaking. CHAP uses Challenge/ Response
method which provides protection against the password capture
while authenticating the user. One should use CHAP whenever
it is possible.
Parallel cable is commonly used for printing. A standard
Centronics Parallel Cable has a DB-25 connector at the computer
end and Centronics 36 pin connector at the printer end.
On laptop computers, passive matrix displays are most
commonly used and cheaper than Active matrix displays. Also,
passive matrix displays consume less power. However, the
advantages of active matrix display are: 1. They can handle
faster screen image transition, and 2. The display is clearly
viewable, even from slant angles.
49)PCMCIA cards are also known as PC cards. PCMCIA stands
for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
PCI cards can be identified by the following attributes:
1. They have a single notch as shown in the exhibit.
2. Also, note that the finger contacts are very close.
The one shown in the exhibit is a Network Interface Card
(NIC) that goes into a PCI slot on the motherboard. Note
that PCI slots are smaller than the ISA slots. All ATX motherboards
have PCI slots, and may or may not have ISA slots. AGP (Advanced
Graphic Port) port is shorter than PCI slot and usually
brown in color. A video card will have onboard video RAM
sockets for adding video memory and also an output connect
to connect to a video monitor.
Peer-to-peer model is best suited when you need to share
files and folders among others in your office. If the number
of networked computers becomes very large or if the security
of data is very important, Client-Server model is recommended.
Philips screw driver uses "#" sign before the number,
such as #1 to denote the size of the blade. Torx screw driver
uses "T" sign before the number.
Possible reasons for slow running of a computer may include
insufficient memory, viruses and Trojan horses, too many
TSRs (Terminate and Stay Resident) running at the same time,
etc. Ensure that your computer has sufficient memory, hard
disk space, and anti-virus software installed (particularly
if connected to the Internet).
50)Power On Self Test (POST) happens after the computer
Pressing F8 during boot process in Windows 2000 desk
top bring up the following options:
1. Safe Mode
2. Safe Mode with Networking
Mode with Command prompt
4. Enable Boot Logging
Enable VGA Mode
6. Last Known Good Configuration
8. Boot Normally
Safe Mode loads only the drivers necessary to get the
desk top up and running. The drivers loaded with Safe Mode
include mouse, monitor, keyboard, hard drive, and standard
Safe Mode with Networking is same as Safe Mode with networking
Safe Mode with Command Prompt option loads the command
prompt instead of Windows 2000 graphical interface.
Enable VGA Mode option loads a standard VGA driver. This
option is good if you have any problem with newly installed
Last Known Good Configuration enables the desk top to
load the configuration that was stored when it was booted
successfully last time.
This option can't take care of any hardware related problems.
The Debugging Mode option runs the Kernel Debugger, if
that utility is installed.
The Boot Normally is same as not pressing the F8 key.
The Windows boots normally
51)Printer parallel ports come in the following varieties:
1. Unidirectional: Here, the data travels only from the
computer to the peripheral(printer) device.
Here, the data travels both from the computer to the peripheral
device and vice-versa.
3. ECP (Extended Capability Port):
ECP mode offers bi-directional data transfer, as well as
DMA for data transfer.
4. EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port):
In addition to bi-directional features, it offers an extended
control code set.
RAM stands for Random Access Memory. There are basically
tow types of RAM: 1. DRAM - Dynamic RAM, and SRAM - Static
RAM. SRAM, being very expensive, normally used for Cache
memory. DRAM, being cheaper, is normally used for main memory.
52)Riser card typically holds multiple IO cards.
RJ-11:These connectors are used to link modem / phone
to the phone line. They have only two pins that get into
RJ-14: RJ-14 connectors are dual-line phone jacks that
can accommodate up to two phone lines.
RJ-45: RJ-45 cable is widely used for attaching UTP cable
in LANenvironment. These connectors have eight pins.
Running a command like "ping" or "ipconfig" will open
the command screen. However, the command screen closes soon
after the execution of the command. If you intend to observe
the results of any such command, you need to open the DOS
screen by going to Program Files | Accessories | Command
53)When attending to a customer call, sensitive discussions
overheard are confidential, and should be treated confidential.
Serial cable maximum length is 50 feet
Parallel cable maximum length is 10 feet
Longer cable lengths may lead to some errors & garbage