21. By default a printer is set to "Always Available". However, you can choose "Available from" button and set the timings for the availability of the printer. To go to this option, Right click on the desired printer, select Properties, and then click on Advanced tab. You can also set the separator page in the Advanced tab.
22. To configure a standby print device, use Properties -> Ports
Here you have two options:
To send documents to another printer on the same print server, click the port to which the other printer is assigned and then click OK
To send documents to a printer on a different print server, Click "Add Port -> Local Port -> New Port". Type the name of the other print server and the share name of the shared printer in the form \\second_print_server\share_name
23. The various file systems supported by Windows 2000 are:
FAT: Also called FAT16, supported by all Microsoft Operating Systems.
FAT32: Also supported by Win 95 OSR2 and Win98
NTFS: This is not supported by Win95/98
CDFS (Compact Disk File System, used to access CDs)
UDF (Universal Disk Format, used to access DVDs)
24. Windows 2000 Operating systems support 5 different volume types:
A simple volume consists of a formatted disk on a single hard disk.
A Spanned volume consists of disk space on more than one hard disk.
A Striped volume has disk space on 2 or more disks. The disk spaces must be same on all disks. Fastest disk access among all volume types. RAID level 0
A mirrored volume consists of a Simple volume that is mirrored in total, onto a second dynamic disk. Provides highest level of fault tolerance. Mirroring is RAID level 1
A RAID-5 volume consists of identical sized disk space located on three or more dynamic disks. Here any single disk failures can be recovered.
Windows 2000 Professional doesn't support Mirrored and RAID-5 volumes, where as other Windows 2000 Server Operating Systems (2000 Server, Advanced Server) support.
25. If you are creating a striped volume on a new Windows 2000 machine, it can only be created on dynamic disks. However, if you are upgrading a Windows NT computer to Windows 2000, any existing stripe set will be supported.
26. Fault tolerance boot disk is a floppy disk that enables you to boot a computer in the event that the first disk in a mirrored volume fails. Even if you mirror the installation folder in a Windows 2000 OS, you will not be able to boot because boot.ini points to the first volume. Therefore, you need to create a fault tolerance boot disk that contains an edited Boot.ini file that points to the mirrored volume.
27. You can use convert.exe command to change a FAT file system to an NTFS file system on a disk volume.
28. Roaming user profile retains its own customized desktop and work environment settings, irrespective of which Windows 2000 computer that a given user logs on.
29. The default Minimum password length is set to 0 characters. The password can be anywhere between 0 and 14 characters. Password length of 0 characters mean that there is no password or a blank password.
30. Disk quotas can only be used on NTFS volumes. This is because only NTFS volumes maintain ownership information on files and folders. Windows Explorer can be used to configure and monitor disk quotas.
31. The default permission for "Everyone" group on a Shared folder is "Full Control". Share permissions are applied only to folders created on FAT (FAT32) partitions.
32. When both Share and NTFS permissions are applied, the most restrictive permissions will apply.
33. If you choose "Print Directly to the Printer" option in the Advanced tab of the Printer Properties, the spooler is bypassed. The document goes directly to the printer. This option can be used to check whether the spooler is corrupt.
34. Disk Management is used to create, manage, and delete simple volumes, spanned volumes, mirrored volumes, striped, and stripe set with parity volumes. Disk Administrator is NT 4 tool and is not available in Windows 2000.
35. By renaming ntuser.dat to ntuser.man, you can assign a mandatory profile to any specific user. To have a uniform looking desktop environment, an administrator can assign mandatory roaming user profile to multiple user accounts.
36. You can rename the Guest and Admin accounts, so that it will be difficult to guess the user name.
37. Print Services for Unix must be installed before adding a Unix printer to a Windows 2000 computer. Further, when you add a Unix printer, it must be assigned LPR port. The Unix server that connects to the print device runs LPD. When you are installing the LPR port, you will be prompted to provide the name or IP address of the Unix computer to which print device is attached.
38. When you install Peer Web Services (PWS) on a Windows 2000 Professional computer, FTP, HTTP, and SMTP services get installed.
39. Diskperf command controls the types of counters that can be viewed using System Monitor.
The syntax for setting the system to start both physical and logical disk performance counters when the system is restarted is
diskperf -y \\computername
(none) : Reports whether disk performance counters are enabled on the local or specified computer and identifies the counters enabled: for physical drives, logical drives, or both.
-y : Sets the system to start both physical and logical disk performance counters when the system is restarted.
computername : Specifies the computer on which you want to see or set disk performance counter use. If a computer name is not specified, the local computer is assumed.
40. You can use System Monitor as well as Task Manager to monitor Processor and Memory usage on your computer.
41. Windows Update is a catalog of items such as drivers, patches, the latest help files, and Internet products that you can download to keep your computer up to date. You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to access the Product Updates section of Windows Update for downloading help files.
42. You create an ERD by choosing Choose Start -> Programs -> Accessories -> System Tools -> Backup. Click on the Emergency Repair button. Provide a blank 31/2 inch Floppy Disk when prompted. Note that in NT, you can create ERD by typing RDISK command. This command is not available in Windows 2000.
43. WINS and LMHOSTS file resolve NetBIOS names to IP addresses, whereas DNS and HOSTS file resolve FQDN to IP addresses.
44. Placing the paging file on different physical disks is optimal. This will improve faster access to the Paging file, and also distribute the load.
45. Some of the important System Monitor counters are:
Memory>Available Mbytes: measures the amount of physical memory that is available. Typically > 4MB. If less than 4 MB, consider adding more memory.
Memory>Pages/Sec: Shows the number of times that the disk has been accessed, because requested information was not available in memory. If the value of the counter is not below 20, you should add more memory. A value of 4 or 5 is typical.
Paging File>%Usage: Indicates the % of allocated page file utilization. Should be less than 99%.
Processor>%Processor Time: measure the time that the processor is busy. Should be typically less than 80%
Processor>Interrupts/Sec: Indicates the average number of hardware interrupts that the processor receives each second. If more than 3,500, you can suspect a program or faulty hardware.
PhysicalDisk>%Disk Time: Measures the amount of time that the physical disk is busy servicing read or write requests. If more than 90%, you can improve the performance by adding another disk channel.
PhysicalDisk>%Current Disk Queue Length: indicates the number of pending disk requests that need to be processed. The value should be less than 2. The disk problems might arise from less memory, resulting in usage of excessive paging. Ensure that the memory is sufficient before attending to the disk problem.
LogicalDisk > %Free Space counter: Indicates the amount of logical disk's free disk space. Typical value is 10% or above.
46. By default, you can start recovery console using,
The Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disks
From the CD ROM drive using Windows 2000 Professional CD (if the CD - ROM drive is bootable).
Also, you can have "Recovery Console" as a start up option by typing \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching to the CD ROM drive letter.
47. Recovery Console allows you to Start and stop services, format drives, read and write data on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS). The Recovery Console is very useful if you need to repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer from starting properly. You must be an administrator to use the Recovery Console.
48. TCP/IP protocol stack is installed by default when you install Windows 2000 on a computer.
49. The Advantages of VPN are:
VPN allows corporations to reduce costs for long distance call using RAS and over long distance phone lines
Because the ISP supports complex communications hardware configurations, a network administrator at the Corporation's office is free to centrally manage user accounts at the remote access server.
Because the most common network protocols (including TCP/IP, IPX , and NetBEUI) are supported, you can remotely run any application dependent upon these particular network protocols.
IP Address Security: Because the VPN is encrypted, the addresses you specify are protected, and the Internet only sees the external IP address.
Enhanced Security: The connection over the Internet is encrypted and secure.
50. IIS: To install Internet Information Services:
Click Start, point to Settings, click Control Panel and start the Add/Remove Programs application.
Select Add/Remove Windows Components and then follow the on-screen instructions to install, remove, or add components to IIS.
51. Task scheduler can be used to automate the scheduled tasks.
52. The Windows 2000 Performance tool is composed of two parts:
System Monitor, and
Performance Logs and Alerts.
With System Monitor, you can collect and view real-time data about memory, disk, processor, network, and other activity in chart (graph), histogram, or report form.
By using Performance Logs and Alerts you can configure logs to record performance data and also to set system alerts so that you are notified when a specified counter's value is above or below a defined threshold.
53. Recovery console:
To use the Recovery Console from Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disks,
Insert the Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disk 1 (3.5-inch) into your disk drive or, if you have a bootable CD-ROM drive, insert the Windows 2000 Professional CD into your CD-ROM drive.
Restart your computer.
Follow the instructions on the screen. Choose the option to repair your Windows 2000 installation, and then the option to start the Recovery Console.Note: You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to use recovery console.
Recovery console can also be configured as a start up option. To configure the Recovery Console as a startup option:
With Windows running, insert the Windows 2000 Professional CD into your CD-ROM drive.
Click No if prompted to upgrade to Windows 2000
At the command prompt, change to your CD-ROM drive, and then type the following: \i386\winnt32.exe /cmdconsYou must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to complete this procedure.
Once the Recovery Console is installed as a start up option, it will be displayed as a startup option during start-up.
You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the Administrators group in order to complete this procedure.
54. You can use both Ping Localhost and Ping 127.0.0.1 to see whether the TCP/IP stack is installed properly. Ipconfig is used to obtain the TCP/IP configuration information, such as the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway etc. on the local computer.
55. Any computer that uses SMB protocol can support offline files and folders. All Microsoft Operating systems support this feature.
56. You can use both "Ping Localhost" and "Ping 127.0.0.1" (don't put double quotes) to see whether the TCP/IP stack is installed properly. Ipconfig is used to obtain the TCP/IP configuration information, such as the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway etc. on the local computer.
57. The various options available with Ipconfig for managing DHCP are:
ipconfig /all : Produces complete details. Without this switch, 'ipconfig' displays only the IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway values for each network card.
Ipconfig /renew [adapter] : Renews DHCP configuration parameters. This option is available only on systems running the DHCP Client service.
Ipconfig /release [adapter] :Releases the current DHCP configuration. This option disables TCP/IP on the local system and is available only on DHCP clients.
To specify an adapter name, type the adapter name that appears when you use 'ipconfig' without parameters.
58. To map a network drive letter to a share, we use the command NET USE. The correct command syntax is "net use Z:\\Server01\Myfiles".
59. Computer Management -> Shared Folders can be used to view some very useful information like
Shares information: Here you can see all of the shares that have been configured on the computer.
Session Information: Allows you to see username, computer name etc that has connected to a share currently
Open Files: Allow you to see currently opened files
60. You can use the View tab in Folder Options applet in the Control Panel to show / hide files and folders that have "Hidden" attribute set. You can also use Windows Explorer -> Tools -> Folder Options -> View tab.
61. To find the effective NTFS permissions, you add up all the permissions given to different groups that a user is member of, and remove all entries with "Deny" permissions (if any). In other words, if any user or group is denied access to a file or folder, it overrides any "Allow" permissions.
62. In Windows 2000 Professional, the default permissions for a subfolders or files are inherited from the parent folder. Compare this with Windows NT 4 where, any subfolder newly created will not inherit any permission from the parent folder. Only files created will inherit permissions from the folder.
63. Compression and encryption:
If you encrypt a folder on an NTFS volume, all files and subfolder created the encrypted folder are automatically encrypted. Therefore, it is recommended that you use encryption at the parent folder level.
Also note that you can't encrypt a file or folder that is compressed. If you want to encrypt a file or folder that is compressed, you need to first decompress the file or folder and then encrypt. Only NTFS volumes support file or folder encryption.
64. Windows 2000 provides two versions of Registry Editor
Regedt32.exe (32-bit) and
Regedt32.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot\system32 folder, while Regedit.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot folder. Regedit.exe is primarily used for its search capabilities, as it doesn't support all functions and data types.
65. Disk Quotas:
To support disk quotas, a disk volume must be formatted with the version of NTFS used in Windows 2000. Volumes formatted with the version of NTFS used in Windows NT 4.0 are upgraded automatically by Windows 2000 Setup.
To administer quotas on a volume, you must be a member of the Administrators group on the computer where the drive resides.
File compression does not affect quota statistics. In other words, if a user is allowed 10MB of disk space, he or she can store a total of 10MB of files / folder irrespective of whether the files / folders are compressed or not.
If a user 'A' takes ownership of a file copied to an NTFS volume by another user 'B', the user A's action causes the disk space occupied by the file to be charged against the user A's quota limit.
66. RIS server is used to deploy Windows 2000 Professional over the network. RIS requires Windows 2000 networks that use DHCP, DNS, and Active Directory. A Remote Installation Services (RIS) Server can support any of the following two types of images:
A CD-based image that contains the Windows 2000 Professional operating system any other files required.
An RIPrep (Remote Installation Preparation) image that is a full copy of the Windows 2000 operating system and applications.
67. A RIS client computer must support one of the following configurations:
PXE compliant boot ROM
RIS boot disk with supporting Network adaptor card.
68. rbfg.exe, RISETUP, sysprep, deploy.cab, and .sif:
rbfg.exe: To create RIS boot disk, on a Windows 2000 Professional computer, run the command \\ris_server\reminst\admin\i386\rbfg.exe to create RIS boot disk.
RISETUP: RISETUP command is used to configure the RIS server with a CD based image after the installation of RIS.
Sysprep: You can install Windows 2000 Professional by using the System Preparation Tool. Sysprep is used to prepare the disk image for the disk duplication.
Deploy: The System Preparation Tool is included on the Windows 2000 Professional CD in the file: \Support\Tools\Deploy.cab.
Answer files for RIS installations end with a .sif extension.
69. The services that are required to be running on the RIS server or accessible to the RIS server as below:
A DHCP server, used to assign IP addresses,
A Domain Name Server (DNS), and
The Active Directory.
70. On a Windows 2000 Professional computer, you can configure the number of users accessing a Share between 1 and 10 (10 max limit).
71. Sysprep.inf is required to fully or partially automate the installation process on the target computer. To run sysprep, you need to have the following files in the folder C:\sysprep folder of the master computer:
72. The default spool folder is located at: Systemroot\System32\spool\printers. For example, if the OS is residing on C drive, the default location will be: "C:\\WINNT\System32\spool\printers".
You can access this location through: Start -> Printers -> File -> Server Properties -> Advanced tab. Type in the new spool location over the default location.
73. To insert a new file extension, you use Windows explorer, and select the application. Then, Tools -> Folder Option -> File Types. Configure the extension appropriately.
74. To connect a USB device, ensure that
The computer supports USB.
The USB should be enabled in the BIOS.
75. Sysprep can be run on:
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows 2000 Server
76. An encrypted file copied to another NTFS Share remains encrypted.
77. Power Users on a Windows 2000 Professional computer can:
Run legacy applications in addition to Windows 2000 certified applications.
Install programs that do not modify operating system files or install system services.
Customize system-wide resources including Printers, Date/Time, and other Control Panel resources.
Create and manage local user accounts and groups.
Stop and start system services, which are not started by default.
Power Users do not have access to the data of other users on an NTFS volume.