Installing, Configuring, and Administering Microsoft Windowsâ 2000
- Cram notes
By default a printer is set to “Always Available”.
However, you can choose “Available from” button and
set the timings for the availability of the printer. To
go to this option, Right click on the desired printer,
select Properties, and then click on Advanced tab. You
can also set the separator page in the Advanced tab.
To configure a standby print device, use Properties ->
Here you have two options:
send documents to another printer on the same print
server, click the port to which the other printer is
assigned and then click OK
send documents to a printer on a different print server,
Click “Add Port -> Local Port -> New Port”.
Type the name of the other print server and the share
name of the shared printer in the form \\second_print_server\share_name
The various file systems supported by Windows 2000 are:
Also called FAT16, supported by all Microsoft
Also supported by Win 95 OSR2 and Win98
This is not supported by Win95/98
(Compact Disk File System, used to access CDs)
(Universal Disk Format, used to access DVDs)
Windows 2000 Operating systems support 5 different
A simple volume consists of a
formatted disk on a single hard disk.
Spanned volume consists of disk space on more than one
Striped volume has disk space on 2 or more disks. The
disk spaces must be same on all disks. Fastest disk
access among all volume types. RAID level 0.
mirrored volume consists of a Simple volume that is
mirrored in total, onto a second dynamic disk. Provides
highest level of fault tolerance. Mirroring is RAID
RAID-5 volume consists of identical sized disk space
located on three or more dynamic disks. Here any single
disk failures can be recovered.
2000 Professional doesn’t support Mirrored and RAID-5
volumes, where as other Windows 2000 Server Operating
Systems (2000 Server, Advanced Server) support.
If you are creating a striped volume on a new Windows
2000 machine, it can only be created on dynamic disks.
However, if you are upgrading a Windows NT computer to
Windows 2000, any existing stripe set will be supported.
Fault tolerance boot disk is a floppy disk that enables
you to boot a computer in the event that the first disk
in a mirrored volume fails. Even if you mirror the
installation folder in a Windows 2000 OS, you will not
be able to boot because boot.ini points to the first
volume. Therefore, you need to create a fault tolerance
boot disk that contains an edited Boot.ini file that
points to the mirrored volume.
You can use convert.exe command to change a FAT file
system to an NTFS file system on a disk volume.
Roaming user profile retains its own customized desktop
and work environment settings, irrespective of which
Windows 2000 computer that a given user logs on.
The default Minimum password length is set to 0
characters. The password can be anywhere between 0 and
14 characters. Password length of 0 characters mean that
there is no password or a blank password.
Disk quotas can only be used on NTFS volumes. This is
because only NTFS volumes maintain ownership information
on files and folders. Windows Explorer can be used to
configure and monitor disk quotas.
The default permission for "Everyone" group on
a Shared folder is "Full Control". Share
permissions are applied only to folders created on FAT
When both Share and NTFS permissions are applied, the
most restrictive permissions will apply.
If you choose “Print Directly to the Printer” option
in the Advanced tab of the Printer Properties, the
spooler is bypassed. The document goes directly to the
printer. This option can be used to check whether the
spooler is corrupt.
Disk Management is used to create, manage, and delete
simple volumes, spanned volumes, mirrored volumes,
striped, and stripe set with parity volumes. Disk
Administrator is NT 4 tool and is not available in
By renaming ntuser.dat to ntuser.man, you can assign a
mandatory profile to any specific user. To have a
uniform looking desktop environment, an administrator
can assign mandatory roaming user profile to multiple
You can rename the Guest and Admin accounts, so that it
will be difficult to guess the user name.
Print Services for Unix must be installed before
adding a Unix printer to a Windows 2000 computer.
Further, when you add a Unix printer, it must be
assigned LPR port. The Unix server that connects to the
print device runs LPD. When you are installing the LPR
port, you will be prompted to provide the name or IP
address of the Unix computer to which print device is
When you install Peer Web Services (PWS) on a
Windows 2000 Professional computer, FTP, HTTP, and SMTP
services get installed.
Diskperf command controls the types of counters
that can be viewed using System Monitor.
The syntax for setting the system to start both physical
and logical disk performance counters when the system is
diskperf -y \\computername
Reports whether disk performance counters are enabled on
the local or specified computer and identifies the
counters enabled: for physical drives, logical drives,
Sets the system to start both physical and logical disk
performance counters when the system is restarted.
Specifies the computer on which you want to see or set disk
performance counter use. If a computer name is not
specified, the local computer is assumed.
You can use System Monitor as well as Task Manager to
monitor Processor and Memory usage on your computer.
Windows Update is a catalog of items such as drivers,
patches, the latest help files, and Internet products
that you can download to keep your computer up to date.
You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of
the Administrators group in order to access the Product
Updates section of Windows Update for downloading help
You create an ERD by choosing Choose Start ->
Programs -> Accessories -> System Tools ->
on the Emergency Repair button. Provide a blank 31/2
inch Floppy Disk when prompted. Note that in NT, you can
create ERD by typing RDISK command. This command is not
available in Windows 2000.
WINS and LMHOSTS file resolve NetBIOS names to IP
addresses, whereas DNS and HOSTS file resolve FQDN to IP
Placing the paging file on different physical disks is
optimal. This will improve faster access to the Paging
file, and also distribute the load.
Some of the important System Monitor counters are:
Mbytes: measures the amount of physical memory that
is available. Typically > 4MB. If less than 4 MB,
consider adding more memory.
Shows the number of times that the disk has been
accessed, because requested information was not
available in memory. If the value of the counter is
not below 20, you should add more memory. A value of
4 or 5 is typical.
- Paging File>%Usage:
Indicates the % of allocated page file utilization.
Should be less than 99%.
Time: measure the time that the processor is busy.
Should be typically less than 80%
Indicates the average number of hardware interrupts
that the processor receives each second. If more
than 3,500, you can suspect a program or faulty
Time: Measures the amount of time that the physical
disk is busy servicing read or write requests. If
more than 90%, you can improve the performance by
adding another disk channel.
Disk Queue Length: indicates the number of pending
disk requests that need to be processed. The value
should be less than 2. The disk problems might arise
from less memory, resulting in usage of excessive
paging. Ensure that the memory is sufficient before
attending to the disk problem.
- LogicalDisk > %Free
Space counter: Indicates the amount of logical disk’s
free disk space. Typical value is 10% or above.
By default, you can start recovery console using,
- The Windows 2000
Professional Setup Disks
- From the CD ROM drive
using Windows 2000 Professional CD (if the CD –ROM
drive is bootable).
you can have “Recovery Console” as a start up option
by typing \i386\winnt32.exe
/cmdcons at the command prompt, after switching to the
CD ROM drive letter.
Recovery Console allows you to:
Start and stop services, format drives, read and write data
on a local drive (including drives formatted to use NTFS).
The Recovery Console is very useful if you need to
repair your system by copying a file from a floppy disk
or CD-ROM to your hard drive, or if you need to
reconfigure a service that is preventing your computer
from starting properly. You must be an administrator to
use the Recovery Console.
TCP/IP protocol stack is installed by default when you
install Windows 2000 on a computer.
The Advantages of VPN are:
- VPN allows
corporations to reduce costs for long distance call
using RAS and over long distance phone lines
- Because the ISP
supports complex communications hardware
configurations, a network administrator at the
Corporation’s office is free to centrally manage
user accounts at the remote access server.
- Because the most
common network protocols (including TCP/IP, IPX ,
and NetBEUI) are supported, you can remotely run any
application dependent upon these particular network
- IP Address Security:
Because the VPN is encrypted, the addresses you
specify are protected, and the Internet only sees
the external IP address.
- Enhanced Security: The connection over the Internet is
encrypted and secure.
To install Internet Information Services:
Click Start, point to Settings, click Control
Panel and start the Add/Remove Programs application.
Select Add/Remove Windows Components and then
follow the on-screen instructions to install, remove, or
add components to IIS.
51. Task scheduler can be used to automate the scheduled tasks.
52. The Windows 2000 Performance tool is composed of two parts:
- System Monitor, and
- Performance Logs and
With System Monitor, you can collect and view real-time data about
memory, disk, processor, network, and other activity in
chart (graph), histogram, or report form.
By using Performance Logs and
Alerts you can configure logs to record performance data
and also to set system alerts so that you are notified
when a specified counter's value is above or below a
53. Recovery console:
- To use the Recovery
Console from Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disks,
the Windows 2000 Professional Setup Disk 1
(3.5-inch) into your disk drive or, if you have a
bootable CD-ROM drive, insert the Windows 2000
Professional CD into your CD-ROM drive.
the instructions on the screen. Choose the option
to repair your Windows 2000 installation, and then
the option to start the Recovery Console.
Note: You must be logged on as an administrator or a member of the
Administrators group in order to use recovery console.
console can also be configured as a start up option.
To configure the Recovery Console as a startup
Windows running, insert the Windows 2000
Professional CD into your CD-ROM drive.
No if prompted to upgrade to Windows 2000.
the command prompt, change to your CD-ROM drive,
and then type the following:
- Once the Recovery Console is installed as a start up option, it
will be displayed as a startup option during
must be logged on as an administrator or a member
of the Administrators group in order to complete
54. You can use both Ping Localhost and Ping 127.0.0.1 to see
whether the TCP/IP stack is installed properly. Ipconfig
is used to obtain the TCP/IP configuration information,
such as the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway
etc. on the local computer.
55. Any computer that uses SMB protocol can support offline files
and folders. All Microsoft Operating systems support
56. You can use both “Ping Localhost” and “Ping 127.0.0.1”
(don’t put double quotes) to see whether the TCP/IP
stack is installed properly. Ipconfig is used to obtain
the TCP/IP configuration information, such as the IP
address, subnet mask, default gateway etc. on the local
57. The various options available with Ipconfig for managing DHCP
Produces complete details. Without this switch,
'ipconfig' displays only the IP address, subnet mask,
and default gateway values for each network card.
Ipconfig /renew [adapter]
Renews DHCP configuration parameters. This
option is available only on systems running the DHCP
Ipconfig /release [adapter]
Releases the current DHCP configuration. This
option disables TCP/IP on the local system and is
available only on DHCP clients.
To specify an adapter name, type the adapter
name that appears when you use 'ipconfig' without
58. To map a network drive letter to a share, we use the command
NET USE. The correct command syntax is “net use
59. Computer Management -> Shared Folders can be used to view
some very useful information like,
Shares information: Here you can see all of the
shares that have been configured on the computer.
Session Information: Allows you to see
username, computer name etc that has connected to a
Open Files: Allow you to see currently opened
60. You can use the View tab in
Folder Options applet in the Control Panel to show /
hide files and folders that have “Hidden” attribute
set. You can also use Windows Explorer -> Tools ->
Folder Options -> View tab.
61. To find the effective NTFS permissions, you add up all the
permissions given to different groups that a user is
member of, and remove all entries with “Deny”
permissions (if any). In other words, if any user or
group is denied access to a file or folder, it overrides
any “Allow” permissions.
62. In Windows 2000 Professional, the default permissions for a
subfolders or files are inherited from the parent
folder. Compare this with Windows NT 4 where, any
subfolder newly created will not inherit any permission
from the parent folder. Only files created will inherit
permissions from the folder.
63. Compression and encryption:
If you encrypt a folder on an NTFS volume, all files and subfolder
created the encrypted folder are automatically
encrypted. Therefore, it is recommended that you use
encryption at the parent folder level.
Also note that you can’t encrypt a file or folder that is
compressed. If you want to encrypt a file or folder that
is compressed, you need to first decompress the file or
folder and then encrypt. Only NTFS volumes support file
or folder encryption.
64. Windows 2000 provides two versions of Registry Editor
Regedt32.exe (32-bit) and
Regedt32.exe is automatically
installed in the systemroot\system32 folder, while
Regedit.exe is automatically installed in the systemroot
folder. Regedit.exe is primarily used for its search
capabilities, as it doesn’t support all functions and
65. Disk Quotas:
To support disk quotas, a disk volume must be
formatted with the version of NTFS used in Windows 2000.
Volumes formatted with the version of NTFS used in
Windows NT 4.0 are upgraded automatically by Windows
To administer quotas on a volume, you must be a
member of the Administrators group on the computer where
the drive resides.
File compression does not affect quota
statistics. In other words, if a user is allowed 10MB of
disk space, he or she can store a total of 10MB of files
/ folder irrespective of whether the files / folders are
compressed or not.
If a user ‘A’ takes ownership of a file
copied to an NTFS volume by another user ‘B’, the
user A's action causes the disk space occupied by the
file to be charged against the user A's quota limit.
66. RIS server is used to deploy
Windows 2000 Professional over the network. RIS requires
Windows 2000 networks that use DHCP, DNS, and Active
Directory. A Remote Installation Services (RIS) Server
can support any of the following two types of images:
A CD-based image that contains the Windows 2000
Professional operating system any other files required.
An RIPrep (Remote Installation Preparation)
image that is a full copy of the Windows 2000 operating
system and applications.
67. A RIS client computer must support one of the following
PXE compliant boot ROM
RIS boot disk with supporting Network adaptor
68. rbfg.exe, RISETUP, sysprep, deploy.cab, and .sif:
rbfg.exe: To create RIS boot disk, on a Windows
2000 Professional computer, run the command \\ris_server\reminst\admin\i386\rbfg.exe
to create RIS boot disk.
RISETUP: RISETUP command is used to configure
the RIS server with a CD based image after the
installation of RIS.
Sysprep: You can install Windows 2000
Professional by using the System Preparation Tool.
Sysprep is used to prepare the disk image for the disk
Deploy: The System Preparation Tool is included
on the Windows 2000 Professional CD in the file:
Answer files for RIS installations end with a .sif
69. The services that are required to be running on the RIS server
or accessible to the RIS server as below:
A DHCP server, used to assign IP addresses,
A Domain Name Server (DNS), and
The Active Directory.
70. On a Windows 2000 Professional computer, you can configure the
number of users accessing a Share between 1 and 10 (10
71. Sysprep.inf is required to fully or partially automate the
installation process on the target computer. To run
sysprep, you need to have the following files in the
folder C:\sysprep folder of the master computer:
72. The default spool folder is located at: Systemroot\System32\spool\printers.
For example, if the OS is residing on C drive, the
default location will be: “C:\\WINNT\System32\spool\printers”.
You can access this location through:
Start -> Printers -> File -> Server Properties ->
Advanced tab. Type in the new spool location over the
73. To insert a new file extension, you use Windows explorer, and
select the application. Then, Tools -> Folder Option
-> File Types. Configure the extension appropriately.
74. To connect a USB device, ensure that
The computer supports USB.
The USB should be enabled in the BIOS.
75. Sysprep can be run on:
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows 2000 Server
Sysprep can’t run on Windows
2000 Server Domain Controllers.
76. An encrypted file copied to another NTFS Share remains
77. Power Users on a Windows 2000 Professional computer can:
Run legacy applications in addition to Windows
2000 certified applications.
Install programs that do not modify operating
system files or install system services.
Customize system-wide resources including
Printers, Date/Time, and other Control Panel resources.
Create and manage local user accounts and
Stop and start system services, which are not
started by default.
Power Users do not have access
to the data of other users on an NTFS volume.