41. SNMP is a part of TCP/IP suite of protocols and used for management of network. With proper SNMP Manager, it is possible to track network events like logon/logoff, failed authentications, etc.
- DNS (Domain Name Service) is used for resolution of domain names to IP addresses.
- WINS, LMHOSTS is used for resolution of NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
- DHCP is Dynamic Host Computer Protocol, which leases IP addresses and other parameters like subnet mask, default gateway to client computers dynamically.
- HOSTS file is used like DNS for resolving Domain names, whereas LMHOSTS file is used like WINS for resolving NetBIOS names. Note that, if you are using HOSTS file for resolving Domain names, you need to load the HOSTS file on all computers on the network that need to access the domain names. This is in contrast with DNS, which is located on a central server.
43. TCP/IP utilities:
NBTSTAT This utility displays current NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections, and display NetBIOS name cache.
NETSTAT Displays protocol statistics and current TCP/IP connections since the server was last booted
TRACERT This command is used to determine which route a packet takes to reach its destination from source.
IPCONFIG Displays Windows IP configuration information.
NSLOOKUP This utility enables users to interact with a DNS server and display resource records.
ROUTE This command can be used to display and edit static routing tables.
44. You have to assign the IP address for your DHCP server statically. A DHCP server can't assign an IP address to itself. Similarly, some other Servers that require static assignment of IP addresses are your DNS server, and WINS server.
- Microsoft Exchange Server is an example of Mail Server. A Web Server is an HTTP Server and serves Web pages.
- A Proxy Server usually sits in between your LAN and the external Internet. It directs all the requests to the Internet from the LAN.
- An SQL Server is Microsoft's version of an client/server type database Server.
- A RAS server is a Windows-based server with the RAS service installed and configured. RAS server allows RAS clients to dial into the network via the RAS server.
- A Web Server delivers requested Web pages. When a client request a page, a web server sends it to the clients browser for viewing. Two most widely used web servers are Apache and Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).
46. Backup methods:
There are three main Backup methods:
- Full Backup: Backs up all data. Takes the longest time to backup, but easy to restore since all files are at one place and you don't need previous back-ups.
- Incremental backup: Only backs up files added or changed since last backup. Quick to back up, but restore requires multiple tapes (last full backup tape plus all incremental tapes since the last full backup).
- Only backs up files since last FULL backup. Each backup takes a little longer, but restore requires only two tapes (most recent full backup and most recent differential backup).
- Both Full backup and Incremental backups reset the archive attribute on a file.
47. All the following parameters need to be taken care of while choosing the Server room.
- Temperature / Humidity: Usually air-conditioned environment is suitable for the server room.
- Anti Static precaution: Precaution need to be taken to prevent static electricity build up in your server room This can be done by choosing proper chairs/ tables, floor mats, and other anti static material.
- The power supply need to be very conditioned. UPS of appropriate rating is a good choice.
48. All the following precautions you need to take while upgrading BIOS:
- Check that BIOS upgrade is appropriate to your server by looking at the BIOS manufacturer's web site or documentation.
- Plan for the upgrade preferably during non-working hours, as the upgrade may cause an interruption of services for short duration.
- Observe the server events log for some time even after the successful upgrade to ensure that every thing is going smoothly.
- Ensure that a valid backup is available, so that the system and user files can be restored in any unforeseen event.
49. UNIX/ Linux is usually administered by writing scripts and through configuration files. Other operating systems like Windows NT and Netware are GUI based and intuitive.
50. 'eDirectory' is Novell's directory platform that is cross platform and LDAP based. Similarly, 'Active Directory' is Microsoft's solution and based on the LDAP protocol. Windows 2000 Server Operating systems and NetWare are LDAP based.