Handles incidents, escalates incidents to problem management staff, manages service requests and answers questions.
Provides an interface for other activities such as customer change requests, maintenance contracts, software licenses, SLM, service asset and configuration management, availability management, financial management for IT services, and IT service continuity management.
B) Objectives of Service desk function
Logging all relevant incident/service request details, and allocating categorization and prioritization codes.
Providing first line investigation and diagnosis.
Resolving those incidents/service requests that do not need escalating across IT.
Escalating incidents/service requests that the service desk cannot resolve within agreed timescales.
Closing all resolved incidents, service requests and other calls.
Conducting customer/user satisfaction call backs/surveys as agreed.
Communication with users - keeping them informed of incident progress, notifying them of impending changes or agreed outages, etc.
Updating the configuration management system under the direction and approval of configuration management if so agreed
C) Organizational structures of Service desk function
Local Service Desk - co-located with users in the office, efficient but expensive, need more coordination among different service desks within the organization.
Centralized Service Desk - economy of scale, better coordination, knowledge and mind sharing, no direct physical interaction with users.
Virtual Service Desk - physically separated service desks linked together with a common system to log issues and communications, allocation of calls based on workload.
Follow the Sun - similar to virtual service desk, allocation of calls based on time of day for 24-hour support, great for global organization.
Specialized Service Desk Groups - need to specify the type of incidents on the user side to reach the support staff to allow faster resolution
8.2 The Technical Management Function
A) Role of Technical management function
Manage the IT infrastructure.
Provide enough skilled supporting staff for the whole lifecycle from strategy to operation and service improvement.
Guide and support operations staff members
B) Objectives of Technical management function
Well designed and highly resilient, cost-effective technical topology.
Use of technical skills to maintain the technical infrastructure in optimum condition.
Swift use of technical skills to speedily diagnose and resolve any technical failures
8.3 Application Management Function
A) Role of Application management function
Manage the IT applications
Ensures that the knowledge required to design, test, manage and improve IT services is identified, developed and refined.
Carry out training needs analysis and provide the training to technical and operation staff
B) Objectives of Application management function
Identify requirements for applications (utility and warranty)
Design, assist in deployment and support applications.
Identify and implement improvements
C) Differences between application management function and application development
Application development is concerned with the one-time set of activities to design and construct application solutions. Whereas, application management function is concerned about the lifetime of the application.
Application development focuses only on utility. Whereas, application management function focuses on both utility and warranty.
Application development focuses on software development. Whereas, application management function focuses on operation and improvement.
In application development staff is typically rewarded for creativity and for completing one project so that they can move on to the next project. Whereas, in application management staff are typically rewarded for consistency and for preventing unexpected events and unauthorized functionality.
In application development, most development work is done in projects where the focus is on delivering specific units of work to specification, on time and within budget. Whereas, in application management most work is done as part of repeatable, ongoing processes.
Management is needed for applications developed externally
8.4 The IT Operations Management Function
A) Role of IT operations management function
Carry out day-to-day activities for the delivery of the services to ensure SLA is met - i.e. provide quality service in an efficient and cost effective manner.
Technical and Application Management Functions define the activities to be carried out by Operations Management Function.
B) Objectives of IT operations management function
Responsible for the day to day running of the IT infrastructure.
As per performance standards created in service design.
Maintaining the "status quo" to achieve infrastructure stability.
Identifying opportunities to improve operational performance and save costs.
Initial diagnosis and resolution of operational incidents
C) IT operations Control : IT operations control oversees execution and monitoring of operational activities and events in the IT infrastructure with the help of an operations bridge or network operations center.
D) Facilities Management : Facilities management refers to the management of the physical IT environment, typically a data center or computer rooms and recovery sites together with all the power and cooling equipment. Facilities management also includes the coordination of large-scale consolidation projects, e.g. data center consolidation or server consolidation projects.
9.1 Process owner
A) Role of Process owner
The process owner role is accountable for ensuring that a process is fit for purpose.
The process owner role is accountable for ensuring that their process is performed according to the agreed and documented standard and meets the aims of the process definition.
B) Responsibilities of Process owner
Ensure the process works efficiently and effectively.
Develop the process strategy, policies and standards.
Design the process and improve its design, document the process.
Design the metrics to be collected and monitor for efficiency.
Ensure the availability of resources and capabilities to carry out the process.
Responsible for the consistency of the process application
9.2 Process manager
A) Role of Process manager
The process manager role is accountable for operational management of a process.
The process manager role is often assigned to the person who carries out the process owner role, but the two roles may be separate in larger organizations.
B) Responsibilities of Process manager
Working with the process owner to plan and coordinate all process activities.
Ensuring that all activities are carried out as required throughout the service lifecycle.
Appointing people to the required roles.
Managing resources assigned to the process.
Working with service owners and other process managers to ensure the smooth running of services.
Monitoring and reporting on process performance.
Identifying improvement opportunities for inclusion in the CSI register.
Working with the CSI manager and process owner to review and prioritize improvements in the CSI register.
Making improvements to the process implementation.
9.3 Process practitioner
A) Role of Process practitioner
Process practitioner is responsible for carrying out one or more process activities under the guidance of process manager.
For some process, process practitioner role may be combined with process manager role.
B) Responsibilities of Process practitioner
Understand and complete the process activities.
Work with process stakeholders to ensure correctness.
Produce records of the process activities.
9.4 Service owner
A) Role of Service owner
The service owner is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT service.
Service owner is accountable for delivering the service across all process areas in an effective and efficient manner.
Accountable to the IT director or service management director for the delivery of the service
B) Responsibilities of Service owner
Service owner represents the service.
Work with all IT groups and process owners to deliver, support and improve the service to the required standards according to business objectives.
Work with customers to understand the requirements, raise RFC and solve issues.
Soliciting required data, statistics and reports for analysis and to facilitate effective service monitoring and performance.
Study impacts on the service by changes in other services / environments.
Maintain the service catalogue entry.
Ensure the process conforms to all policies
As a primary stakeholder in all the processes involved with the service
9.5 RACI model
A) Acronym of RACI : RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of being:
Responsible: The person or people responsible for correct execution - for getting the job done
Accountable the person who has ownership of quality and the end result. Only one person can be accountable for each task.
Consulted the people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought. They have involvement through input of knowledge and information.
Informed the people who are kept up to date on progress. They receive information about process execution and quality.
B) RACI model- typical steps to create RACI matrix
Identify the processes/activities.
Identify and define the roles
Conduct meetings and assign the RACI codes
Identify any gaps or overlaps. E.g., Multiple R's or no R's
Distribute the chart and incorporate feedback
Ensure that the allocations are being followed
Typical example of a RACI Matrix is as shown below:
a) Left column in the matrix represents: activities, actions, decisions.
b) Top row in the matrix represents: functional roles responsible for process or service.
c) Cells in the matrix represents: RACI assignments
Figure: An example of a RACI matrix
10. Technology and Architecture
10.1 Role of automation
1) The capacity of automated resources can be more easily adjusted in response to variations in demand volumes.
2) Automated resources can handle capacity with fewer restrictions on time of access, they can therefore be used to serve demand across time zones and after-hours.
3) Automated systems present a good basis for measuring and improving service processes by holding constant the factor of human resources; conversely, they can be used to measure the differential impact on service quality and costs due to varying levels of knowledge, skills and experience of human resources.
4) Many optimization problems such as scheduling, routing and allocation of resources require computing power that is beyond the capacity of human agents.
5) Automation is a means for capturing the knowledge required for a service process, codified knowledge is relatively easy to distribute in the organization in a consistent and secure manner. It reduces the depreciation of knowledge when employees move within the organization or permanently leave
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