Exam Cram Notes For CIW Foundation Certifications Exams

(1D0-410)

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21. Some frequently occurring HTTP error messages:

1. Client side:

  • 404-not found (specified file not found on server side)
  • 401 - unauthorized

2. Server side:

  • 500 - internal server error
  • 502 - Server overloaded
  • 503 - service unavailable
  • 504 - gateway timeout

22. The domain extension, .ORG extension represents a non-profit organization.

23. Veronica is used with Gopher. Similarly, Archie is used with FTP.

24. If you want to embed a Pert script into html page, the correct syntax for inserting PerlScript is

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="PerlScript" SRC="mycode.js"> </SCRIPT>

Note that "/" is placed before the SCRIPT command as shown, to signify that it is the end of the script.

25. The correct syntax for inserting Java Script into html page is

<SCRIPT LANGUAGE="JavaScript" SRC="mycode.js"> </SCRIPT>

Note that "/" is placed before the SCRIPT command as shown, to signify that it is the end of the script.

26. Certificate authority (CA) is any trusted third party that issues certificates and claims to have verifies the identity of a server or an individual for security purposes. A certificate is a digital signature containing the identity of a server or an individual.

27. The following messages can usually be set by editing the properties of FTP site. Users (clients computers) get these messages when appropriate.

  • Welcome message: When a user enters an FTP site, this message is displayed.
  • Exit message: When a user exits an FTP site, this message is displayed.
  • Maximum connections: This is displayed when the maximum simultaneous connections limit is reached at the FTP server, and the user computer can not be connected because of this.

28. At least first and second level domain names (in this case company.com) are to be registered with InterNIC for access over Internet. Third level and below can be resolved by installing DNS server.

29. LDAP is based on X.500 Directory Access Protocol.

30. BinHex & MIME:

  • MIME stands for Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. Its specifies how non ASCII (binary) messages such as graphics can be sent across the Internet.
  • BinHex is an encoding method, that encodes binary data into ASCII data while sending it through email. MIME structures are more flexible compared to other methods such as BinHex.

31. Switches work at layer 2 of ISO model, which is Data Link Layer. A switch looks at the destination MAC address before forwarding the frame.

32. The correct sequence of tags in an html page is:

<html>

<head>
<title>

</title>

</head>

<body>

</body>

</html>

Please note that the tag "title" comes between "head" tags. "title" describes the title of the page and usually appears in the Title window of the browser.

33. Correct syntax to insert a comment into html page is:

The correct syntax is <!-- your message -->

An example is

<!-- BEGIN FASTCOUNTER LINK -->

Here 'BEGIN FASTCOUNTER LINK' is the comment that you have inserted into html code.

34. HTML:

If you write <IMG SRC="myimage.gif">, the web server assumes that the image is in the same folder as that of the web page. If the image is in different folder, you need to specify the folder in the IMG directive ex: <IMG SRC="images/myimage.gif">.

Correct syntax to insert a hyperlink to www.yahoo.com, when user clicks on "YAHOO" is <A HREF="http://www.yahoo.com">YAHOO

To include special characters, such as '<', '>' etc. we can use specified character entities.

This is required because, these characters have special meaning within html and therefore need to be specified otherwise.

Given below are some character entities used in HTML:

Less than (<): <

Greater than (>): >

Copyright: ©

Registered trademark: ®

The attribute "ALT" provides an alternative description of an image. This is useful, for example if a client has selected "Text Only" version and prevented any images to be down loaded for faster access to a web page. Also, it may so happen that a browser does not support the image format and can not display the image.

Common syntax for displaying alternate text is:

<IMG SRC="mypicture.gif" ALT="MY Picture">

35. Some of the image / video / audio file formats available are:

  • GIF (extension .gif): GIF is one of the most widely used formats for images on the World Wide Web. GIF images are very compact and have only 256 colors or 8 bits.
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group, extension .jpg): JPEG is a 24 bit, 16-million color graphic file format widely used on the Web. JPEG uses compression to reduce the file size and recommended for continuous tone images.
  • PNG (Portable network Graphics, extension .png): This is a new format, not yet widespread. Specifically designed for the Web.
  • MOV (Quick Time Movie, extension .mov): Quick Time Plug-in is required to play .mov files on the Internet.
  • MPEG (Extension .mpg): MPEG can provide full motion, full screen video with special software /or hardware.
  • PDF (Extension .pdf): This format is developed by Adobe Acrobat. It is used to display documents that are created using Adobe Acrobat. .pdf format is most widely used over the Internet to distribute the documents.

36. Web Graphics:

  • VRML allows the display of 3D pictures with Web browsers.
  • All .bmp,.gif, and .jpeg use raster graphics, where as Flash uses vector graphics. Vector graphics take less file space compared to raster graphics.
  • VRML files use the extension .wrl.

37. A text editor such as Note pad can be used for writing HTML pages. But you need to enter all the code yourself (including html tags). On the other hand, if you are using a GUI editor to write HTML pages, inherent tags are inserted by the editor itself, such that you don't have to worry about the syntax. This will save time more efficient.

38. A Web page written in HTML can usually support the following lists:

  • Unordered lists: Unordered lists are bulleted and used when it is not required to number the lists.
  • Ordered lists: In an ordered list, the number precedes each list item.
  • Definition lists: A definition list typically lists each definition term followed by an indented description.

The correct syntax for writing Ordered lists is:

<OL>

<L1>Bulleted item 1

<L2>Bulleted item 2

</OL>

Note that there is no /L1 or /L2 tag

The correct syntax for writing Unordered lists is:

<UL>

<L1>Bulleted item 1

<L1>Bulleted item 2

</UL>

Note that there is no /L1 or /L2 tag.

The correct syntax for writing Definition Lists is: <DL>

<DT> Definition Term 1

<DD> Definition Description 1

<DT> Definition Term 2

<DD> Definition Description 2

/DL

Remember that CompTIA expects you to be familiar with HTML tags and writing Web pages with pure HTML.

39. Flash: Flash is from Macromedia. Flash is based on vector graphics, and used for developing dazzling Web sites. You can also incorporate animation with Flash. Flash plug-in is required to display Flash content.

Shockwave: Shockwave is also from Macromedia. Shockwave is used for displaying interactive Web sites involving video, graphics, and Audio. Shockwave plug-in is required to display web pages with Shockwave content.

40. The correct syntax of html code to start an email client on client browser is

<A HREF="mailto:support@yahoo.com"> Email Yahoo Support </A>

This command will open the clients email program and puts "support@yahoo.com" in the "TO" address field. support@yahoo.com is taken only as an example.

41. A trademark is an original and unique name or symbol that is provided legal protection indefinitely.

42. A copyright applies to original works of "authorship". It is protected for the life of the author and an additional 50 years.

43. There are some occasions, where it will not constitute violation of copyright law:

  • Parody
  • Use by free educational institutions, where in portions of the material is used for non-profit
  • Limited use, wherein, the material is used only to quote some portions.
  • Archiving purposes.

44. The following are valid representations of copyright display:

© 2001 Sky Publications

Copyright 2001 Sky Publications

45. SSL, Secure Socket Layer, works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, Web pages that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.

Another protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP). Whereas SSL creates a secure connection between a client and a server, over which any amount of data can be sent securely, S-HTTP is designed to transmit individual messages securely. SSL and S-HTTP, therefore, can be seen as complementary rather than competing technologies. Both protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard.

46. Techniques for indexing a si

Keyword index uses only keywords as specified by the user for indexing.

Stemming: Stemming is a technique that searches for the base of a work. For example, if you search for "tutoring", a word containing "tutor" may result.

47. When using "PUSH" technology, the server pushes the information to the browser, even if the browser doesn't request that information. This is different from PULL technology, wherein browser requests the information or pulls the information from the server.

48. X.509 is the most widely used standard for defining digital certificates.

49. S/MIME, Short for Secure/MIME, a new version of the MIME protocol that supports encryption of messages. S/MIME is based on RSA's public-key encryption technology.

50. ASP tags begin with "<%" and end with "%>". The tags are known as delimiters.

51. CGI and ISAPI can only be used for server side scripting.

VBScript, JavaScript, ASP are used for client side scripting.

52. NAP (Network Access Point), a public network exchange facility where Internet Service Providers (ISPs) connect with one another in peering arrangements. This is a key component of the Internet backbone because the connections within them determine how traffic is routed.

53. FTP:

1. To ftp to a host, you issue the command "open <host name> or <host ip address>".

Also, you can directly issue the command "ftp <host name> or <ip address>" to open a session with the host computer.

For example to open an ftp session with microsoft.com, you can issue, "open microsoft.com".

Similarly to ftp to ip address, say 202.54.16.37, you can issue open 202.54.16.37.

2. To upload a single file using FTP, use the command "put",

3. To download a single file using FTP, use the command "get",

4. To upload multiple files using FTP, use the command "mput",

5. To download multiple files using FTP, use the command "mget".

54. When you enable SSL communication on your Web site, you need to install a digitally certified key on your Web server. SSL communication doesn't necessarily require the user supply a unique Username and Password.

55. There are two methods of submitting information to the form handler-either GET or POST. The GET method encodes the form's name-value pairs and assigns the information to a server variable called QUERY_STRING. The POST method passes the name-value pair directly to the form handler as input.

56. NIC, or Network Interface Card goes inside the computer. Hub, Switch, and Bridge are usually external to the computer. However, Modems come in two flavors. One internal modem that goes inside the computer cabinet, and the other external, The external modem sits outside the computer and is usually connected by a serial cable to COM port of computer.

57. HTTP 1.1:

1.Host headers enable a single IP address to be assigned to multiple web sites.

2.Persistent connections allow a single session between a client and server to transfer multiple objects, connected to a single resource.

3.Pipelining does not require clients to wait for a confirmation or completion of each request before sending another request.

Older browsers support only HTTP version 1.0, whereas most modern browsers support HTTP ver.1.1

58. URL (Uniform Resource Locator):A URL uniquely identifies the location of a computer, directory, or file on the Internet. The URL also specifies the appropriate port to be used (if different from default port value), Internet protocol, such as HTTP or FTP. The following is an example of a correctly formed URL: http://www.microsoft.com. When no file is specified in the URL, the client's browser displays the default.htm or default.asp file, located in the home directory of the Web site.

59. The extensions that are usually associated with some important file types are:

  • Active Server Pages -- .asp
  • Java source code -- .java
  • Java Script -- .js
  • Perl script -- .pl

60. The correct syntax for opening an email client from within a browser window is

<A HREF="mailto:support@yahoo.com"> Email Yahoo Support </A>

This command will open the clients email program and puts "support@yahoo.com" in the "TO" address field.

61. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3 establishes the standards for HTML as well as Extensible Markup Language (XML). Tim Berners-Lee invented HTML, which was derived from SGML.

62. You must define a mime type for the file extensions of your custom file format at the web server.

63. SSL, Secure Socket Layer, works by using a private key to encrypt data that's transferred over the SSL connection. Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL, and many Web sites use the protocol to obtain confidential user information, such as credit card numbers. By convention, Web pages that require an SSL connection start with https: instead of http:.

Another protocol for transmitting data securely over the World Wide Web is Secure HTTP (S-HTTP). Whereas SSL creates a secure connection between a client and a server, over which any amount of data can be sent securely, S-HTTP is designed to transmit individual messages securely. SSL and S-HTTP, therefore, can be seen as complementary rather than competing technologies. Both protocols have been approved by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as a standard.

64. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA): IANA is in charge of all "unique parameters" on the Internet, including IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. In turn, the some of the responsibilities are delegated to ICANN, as follows:

ICANN coordinates the assignment of Internet domain names, IP addresses that must be globally unique for the Internet to function.

Internet Architecture Board (IAB): The IAB is responsible for defining the overall architecture of the Internet, providing guidance and broad direction to the IETF. The IAB also serves as the technology advisory group to the Internet Society.

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